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Young Smokers‘¦ Cognitive and Affective Responses to Gain-framed and Loss-framed Antismoking Message: A Think Aloud Protocol Study
Unformatted Document Text:  Framing Antismoking Message – 40 Table 18 Statistical Tests – Surprise Index Mean Std. Deviation N F Sig. Eta Squared Gain-framed 3.38 1.72 32 0.97 0.33 0.03 Loss-framed 3.04 1.41 32 Table 19 Statistical Tests – Total Fear Control Responses Mean Std. Deviation N F Sig. Eta Squared Gain-Framed 1.1 2.1 32 2.9 0.1 0.085 Loss-Framed 1.68 2.0 32 Table 20 Statistical Tests – Perceived Manipulation Mean Std. Deviation N F Sig. Eta Squared Gain-framed 0.28 0.68 32 2.63 0.12 0.078 Loss-framed 0.59 1.2 32 Table 21 Statistical Tests – Defensive Avoidance Mean Std. Deviation N F Sig. Eta Squared Gain-framed 0.5 1.3 32 0.01 0.9 0.00 Loss-framed 0.53 0.8 32 Table 22 Statistical Tests – Denial Mean Std. Deviation N F Sig. Eta Squared Gain-framed 0.13 0.34 32 4.33 0.046 0.12 Loss-framed 0.56 1.1 32 Table 23 Descriptive Analyses – Frequencies of Cognitive Thoughts Maintenance Evaluation Elaboration Cognitive Processing Belief Outcome Evaluation Attitude Toward Smoking Subjective Norms Number of thoughts (Percentage) 72 (5%) 152 (11%) 611 (45%) 313 (23%) 24 (2%) 37 (3%) Mean (Standard Deviation) 2.3 (2.4) 4.9 (4.9) 19.1 (6.3) 9.8 (6.5) 0.8 (1.3) 1.2 (1.7)

Authors: Cheng, I-Huei. and Cameron, Glen.
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Framing Antismoking Message –
40
Table 18 Statistical Tests – Surprise Index
Mean
Std.
Deviation
N
F
Sig. Eta
Squared
Gain-framed 3.38
1.72
32
0.97 0.33
0.03
Loss-framed 3.04
1.41
32
Table 19 Statistical Tests – Total Fear Control Responses
Mean
Std.
Deviation
N
F
Sig. Eta
Squared
Gain-Framed
1.1 2.1
32
2.9
0.1
0.085
Loss-Framed
1.68 2.0
32
Table 20 Statistical Tests – Perceived Manipulation
Mean Std.
Deviation
N
F
Sig. Eta
Squared
Gain-framed 0.28
0.68 32
2.63
0.12 0.078
Loss-framed 0.59
1.2
32
Table 21 Statistical Tests – Defensive Avoidance
Mean Std.
Deviation
N
F
Sig. Eta
Squared
Gain-framed 0.5
1.3
32
0.01
0.9 0.00
Loss-framed 0.53
0.8
32
Table 22 Statistical Tests – Denial
Mean
Std.
Deviation
N
F
Sig. Eta
Squared
Gain-framed
0.13 0.34
32
4.33
0.046
0.12
Loss-framed
0.56 1.1
32
Table 23 Descriptive Analyses – Frequencies of Cognitive Thoughts
Maintenance Evaluation Elaboration
Cognitive
Processing
Belief Outcome
Evaluation
Attitude Toward
Smoking
Subjective
Norms
Number of
thoughts
(Percentage)
72

(5%)
152

(11%)
611

(45%)
313

(23%)
24

(2%)
37

(3%)
Mean
(Standard
Deviation)
2.3
(2.4)
4.9
(4.9)
19.1
(6.3)
9.8
(6.5)
0.8
(1.3)
1.2
(1.7)


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