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Young Smokersˇ¦ Cognitive and Affective Responses to Gain-framed and Loss-framed Antismoking Message: A Think Aloud Protocol Study
Unformatted Document Text:  Framing Antismoking Message – 5 than those reading gain-framed messages. And yet, Millar and Millar (2000) tested the effects of message framing on safe driving information and found that more cognitive thoughts were associated with gain-framed messages when individuals’ issue involvement was high. The present study will examine the effects of message framing from a perspective of message processing . Due to the inconsistent findings in previous research, we ask: RQ1: Does message framing have an effect on provoking cognitive thoughts? RQ2: Does message framing have an effect on valence of cognitive thoughts? RQ3: Does message framing influence one’s attitude toward the message? RQ4: Does message framing have an effect on how individuals perceive the persuasiveness of a message, i.e., perceived effectiveness of a message (Dillard & Peck, 2001)? Affective Responses in Message Processing Affective responses have been measured in some message framing studies in order to understand individuals’ emotional reactions to the messages and the effectiveness of persuasion. Some message framing studies did not find affective responses differ by the framing (e.g., Maheswaran & Meyers-Levy, 1990; Meyerowitz & Chaiken, 1987), but some more recent studies have found gain framing was associated with more positive affects when people process the message (e.g., Rothman et al., 1993; Millar & Millar, 2000). Meyerowitz and Chaiken (1987) expected fear arousal might have mediated the message framing effect of BSE information, which was observed in their study. In their findings, although the mean score of fear arousal for gain-framed messages was higher, it was concluded with no significant effect of message framing on emotional reactions, measured by a composite fear index (i.e., fearful, anxious, uncomfortable and nauseated).

Authors: Cheng, I-Huei. and Cameron, Glen.
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Framing Antismoking Message –
5
than those reading gain-framed messages. And yet, Millar and Millar (2000) tested the
effects of message framing on safe driving information and found that more cognitive
thoughts were associated with gain-framed messages when individuals’ issue
involvement was high. The present study will examine the effects of message framing
from a perspective of message processing
.
Due to the inconsistent findings in previous
research, we ask:
RQ1: Does message framing have an effect on provoking cognitive thoughts?
RQ2: Does message framing have an effect on valence of cognitive thoughts?
RQ3: Does message framing influence one’s attitude toward the message?
RQ4: Does message framing have an effect on how individuals perceive the
persuasiveness of a message, i.e., perceived effectiveness of a message (Dillard
& Peck, 2001)?
Affective Responses in Message Processing
Affective responses have been measured in some message framing studies in order
to understand individuals’ emotional reactions to the messages and the effectiveness of
persuasion. Some message framing studies did not find affective responses differ by the
framing (e.g., Maheswaran & Meyers-Levy, 1990; Meyerowitz & Chaiken, 1987), but
some more recent studies have found gain framing was associated with more positive
affects when people process the message (e.g., Rothman et al., 1993; Millar & Millar,
2000). Meyerowitz and Chaiken (1987) expected fear arousal might have mediated the
message framing effect of BSE information, which was observed in their study. In their
findings, although the mean score of fear arousal for gain-framed messages was higher, it
was concluded with no significant effect of message framing on emotional reactions,
measured by a composite fear index (i.e., fearful, anxious, uncomfortable and nauseated).


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