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Young Smokers Cognitive and Affective Responses to Gain-framed and Loss-framed Antismoking Message: A Think Aloud Protocol Study
Unformatted Document Text:  Framing Antismoking Message – 6 Rothman et al. (1993) in the second part of their study, tested messages that promoted sunscreen use to prevent of skin cancer, and found “subjects exposed to negatively framed information reacted with more negative affect and less positive affect than subjects exposed to positively framed information,” (p. 425) which was measured with affective reaction indexes composed of ten items (e.g., sad, and relieved). Millar and Millar (2000) tested how message framing influenced intention to perform safe driving behaviors, and measured affective responses to messages with three scales (sad/happy, anxious/relaxed, nervous/calm). They found gain-framed messages were associated with more positive affective responses than loss-framed messages were. These studies that examined effects of message framing on emotions differ in their affect measurement items, and in their definition of positive affects versus negative ones. A more precise structure of affect can be borrowed from the line of the research on affect to understand its function of persuasion or guiding behaviors. A closer examination of emotional responses can help better understand the persuasion effects of message framing because an affect provides information of its signal value, function and action tendency. For example, affect of fear contains a signal value of danger, performs as a function of protection, and leads to an action to revise existing behavior (Dillard & Peck, 2001; see Table 2). Thus, in order to more closely examine whether message faming has influence on people’s emotional states, this present study borrowed measurement from the recent study of Dillard and Peck (2001) that tested affective responses to public services announcements (PSAs) related to different health topics. The inconsistent results and non-thorough measurement in the past studies that have tested the influence of message framing on affective responses suggest a need to re-

Authors: Cheng, I-Huei. and Cameron, Glen.
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Framing Antismoking Message –
6
Rothman et al. (1993) in the second part of their study, tested messages that
promoted sunscreen use to prevent of skin cancer, and found “subjects exposed to
negatively framed information reacted with more negative affect and less positive affect
than subjects exposed to positively framed information,” (p. 425) which was measured
with affective reaction indexes composed of ten items (e.g., sad, and relieved). Millar
and Millar (2000) tested how message framing influenced intention to perform safe
driving behaviors, and measured affective responses to messages with three scales
(sad/happy, anxious/relaxed, nervous/calm). They found gain-framed messages were
associated with more positive affective responses than loss-framed messages were.
These studies that examined effects of message framing on emotions differ in their affect
measurement items, and in their definition of positive affects versus negative ones. A
more precise structure of affect can be borrowed from the line of the research on affect to
understand its function of persuasion or guiding behaviors. A closer examination of
emotional responses can help better understand the persuasion effects of message framing
because an affect provides information of its signal value, function and action tendency.
For example, affect of fear contains a signal value of danger, performs as a function of
protection, and leads to an action to revise existing behavior (Dillard & Peck, 2001; see
Table 2). Thus, in order to more closely examine whether message faming has influence
on people’s emotional states, this present study borrowed measurement from the recent
study of Dillard and Peck (2001) that tested affective responses to public services
announcements (PSAs) related to different health topics.
The inconsistent results and non-thorough measurement in the past studies that have
tested the influence of message framing on affective responses suggest a need to re-


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