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Young Smokersˇ¦ Cognitive and Affective Responses to Gain-framed and Loss-framed Antismoking Message: A Think Aloud Protocol Study
Unformatted Document Text:  Framing Antismoking Message – 7 examine the emotional reactions when individuals process information of different message framing. This study will examine whether message framing has influence on smokers’ affective reactions by asking: RQ5: Does message framing have an influence on affective responses of surprise, anger, fear, sadness guilt, happiness, and contentment? RQ6: Do loss-framed messages and gain-framed messages differ in arousing negative affects and positive affects? Fear Appeal Theory: Extended Parallel Process Model Fear appeal messages, same as loss-framed messages, emphasize on the risks, or the potential exposure to losses or costs. It is an emotional appeal used by some health educators and practitioners for arousing fearful or scared feelings, to enhance perception of health risk and therefore adjust health-related behaviors (Stephenson & Witte, 2000). Theories from this perspective offer more understanding on how messages that emphasize on loss information can be persuasive to trigger off a change in cognitive structure or in behavior. Witte (1992) extended the frameworks from past research, and developed the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM), which is regarded as an integration and expansion of previous fear appeal theories (Stephenson & Witte, 2000). The EPPM proposes that fear-arousing messages initiate two appraisals and such appraisals may lead to danger control or fear control processes. Specifically, four message components – severity, susceptibility, response efficacy, and self-efficacy will be processed in an additive manner into perceived threat and perceived efficacy (i.e., perceived threat = perceived severity + perceived susceptibility; perceived efficacy = perceived response efficacy + perceived self-efficacy) and the “EMMP suggests that threat and efficacy

Authors: Cheng, I-Huei. and Cameron, Glen.
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Framing Antismoking Message –
7
examine the emotional reactions when individuals process information of different
message framing. This study will examine whether message framing has influence on
smokers’ affective reactions by asking:
RQ5: Does message framing have an influence on affective responses of surprise,
anger, fear, sadness guilt, happiness, and contentment?
RQ6: Do loss-framed messages and gain-framed messages differ in arousing negative
affects and positive affects?
Fear Appeal Theory: Extended Parallel Process Model
Fear appeal messages, same as loss-framed messages, emphasize on the risks, or the
potential exposure to losses or costs. It is an emotional appeal used by some health
educators and practitioners for arousing fearful or scared feelings, to enhance perception
of health risk and therefore adjust health-related behaviors (Stephenson & Witte, 2000).
Theories from this perspective offer more understanding on how messages that
emphasize on loss information can be persuasive to trigger off a change in cognitive
structure or in behavior.
Witte (1992) extended the frameworks from past research, and developed the
Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM), which is regarded as an integration and
expansion of previous fear appeal theories (Stephenson & Witte, 2000). The EPPM
proposes that fear-arousing messages initiate two appraisals and such appraisals may lead
to danger control or fear control processes. Specifically, four message components –
severity, susceptibility, response efficacy, and self-efficacy will be processed in an
additive manner into perceived threat and perceived efficacy (i.e., perceived threat =
perceived severity + perceived susceptibility; perceived efficacy = perceived response
efficacy + perceived self-efficacy) and the “EMMP suggests that threat and efficacy


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