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Young Smokers¡¦ Cognitive and Affective Responses to Gain-framed and Loss-framed Antismoking Message: A Think Aloud Protocol Study
Unformatted Document Text:  Framing Antismoking Message – 9 derogation, or contempt toward the speaker. Second, defensive avoidance is defined by Hovland, Janis and Kelley (1953) as a motivated resistance to a fear appeal where people avoid subsequent thoughts about the message, and is interpreted by Witte (1994) as a form of perceptual defense when a stimulus provokes anxiety and is defended against in perception or prevented from coming to awareness (i.e., incoming information is distorted or ignored). Last, inattentiveness to the communication is characterized by Janis and Feshbach (1953) as not listening, blocking of associations, or evasiveness, and is operationalized by Witte (1994) as denial of being at risk. An earlier listed research question asks whether message framing has impact on arousing fearful feelings. Then based on the EPPM, this study further asks: RQ7: Does message framing have an effect on fear control responses? Theory of Reasoned Action The Theory of Reasoned Action is one of the most widely adopted theories in health communication. The theory was developed by Fishbein and Ajzen (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980; Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975), based on the assumptions that people are rational, behaving in a sensible manner that they take account of available information, and implicitly or explicitly considering the implications of their actions (Ajzen, 1988). The theory has been applied in many studies to a variety of health-related behaviors, such as dental hygiene, alcohol use, AIDS-related behaviors, mammography participation, and safe driving, in order to understand or predict people’s actions when facing health risks (Boyd & Wandersman, 1991; Brubaker et al., 1987; Fishbein & Middlestadt, 1989; Henning & Knowles, 1990; Montano & Taplin, 1991; Sheppard et al., 1998; Stasson & Fishbein, 1990; Toneatto & Binik, 1987; Yagil, 2001).

Authors: Cheng, I-Huei. and Cameron, Glen.
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Framing Antismoking Message –
9
derogation, or contempt toward the speaker. Second, defensive avoidance is defined by
Hovland, Janis and Kelley (1953) as a motivated resistance to a fear appeal where people
avoid subsequent thoughts about the message, and is interpreted by Witte (1994) as a
form of perceptual defense when a stimulus provokes anxiety and is defended against in
perception or prevented from coming to awareness (i.e., incoming information is
distorted or ignored). Last, inattentiveness to the communication is characterized by
Janis and Feshbach (1953) as not listening, blocking of associations, or evasiveness, and
is operationalized by Witte (1994) as denial of being at risk.
An earlier listed research question asks whether message framing has impact on
arousing fearful feelings. Then based on the EPPM, this study further asks:
RQ7: Does message framing have an effect on fear control responses?
Theory of Reasoned Action
The Theory of Reasoned Action is one of the most widely adopted theories in health
communication. The theory was developed by Fishbein and Ajzen (Ajzen & Fishbein,
1980; Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975), based on the assumptions that people are rational,
behaving in a sensible manner that they take account of available information, and
implicitly or explicitly considering the implications of their actions (Ajzen, 1988). The
theory has been applied in many studies to a variety of health-related behaviors, such as
dental hygiene, alcohol use, AIDS-related behaviors, mammography participation, and
safe driving, in order to understand or predict people’s actions when facing health risks
(Boyd & Wandersman, 1991; Brubaker et al., 1987; Fishbein & Middlestadt, 1989;
Henning & Knowles, 1990; Montano & Taplin, 1991; Sheppard et al., 1998; Stasson &
Fishbein, 1990; Toneatto & Binik, 1987; Yagil, 2001).


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