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A Moderating Role of Channel Responsiveness in the Effects of Online Information Source
Unformatted Document Text:  5 that individuals rely on the image of the store to evaluate the advertised product when they don’t have information about the brand. In a study on changes in attitude and behavior intention related to issue-advocacy advertising, Straughan, Bleske, and Zhao (1996) examined effects of message formats (channels) and endorsers, each with a commercial (advertisement and company CEO) vs. non-commercial (newspaper article and nonprofit association president) intent, on individuals’ attitude and behavior intention related to advocacy messages. In addition to direct effects of message formats and endorsers, they hypothesized that these effects would be mediated by credibility of the source and individuals’ interest in the message. An analysis of a path model indicated that the source credibility mediated the effects of message formats while individuals’ interest mediated the effects of endorsers. This finding suggests that news can be more effective than ads because of its perceived credibility by individuals, while the endorsement from a CEO produces individuals’ interest in the message better than the endorsement from nonprofit association president. Besides Straughan et al.’s (1996) study, there are a considerable number of studies that report effects of source (endorser) attributes (Artz, 1995; DeShields, et al., 1996; Eastin, 2001; Feick & Higie, 1992; Hennessey & Anderson, 1990). Coherent in these studies is an assumption that individuals’ perception of certain dimensions of source attributes will determine persuasiveness of the source. The vast interest in the effects of source attributes is partly due to a more common practice by a message originator (e.g., advertisers) to vary endorsers with different attributes to enhance message effectiveness than vice versa. A number of endorser attributes have been examined in the literature, including credibility, expertise, trustworthiness, attractiveness, objectivity, and similarity. Some attributes (e.g., trustworthiness, expertise, and goodwill) are conceptualized to constitute a larger construct (e.g., credibility). A meta-analysis of effects of source attributes revealed that source attributes account for 4.5 percent of the explained variance overall and an average of nine percent of the explained variance among studies reporting significant findings (Wilson & Sherrell, 1993). Among the various attributes of

Authors: Kim, Hyojin. and Stephens, Keri.
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that individuals rely on the image of the store to evaluate the advertised product when they don’t
have information about the brand.
In a study on changes in attitude and behavior intention related to issue-advocacy
advertising, Straughan, Bleske, and Zhao (1996) examined effects of message formats (channels)
and endorsers, each with a commercial (advertisement and company CEO) vs. non-commercial
(newspaper article and nonprofit association president) intent, on individuals’ attitude and
behavior intention related to advocacy messages. In addition to direct effects of message formats
and endorsers, they hypothesized that these effects would be mediated by credibility of the
source and individuals’ interest in the message. An analysis of a path model indicated that the
source credibility mediated the effects of message formats while individuals’ interest mediated
the effects of endorsers. This finding suggests that news can be more effective than ads because
of its perceived credibility by individuals, while the endorsement from a CEO produces
individuals’ interest in the message better than the endorsement from nonprofit association
president.
Besides Straughan et al.’s (1996) study, there are a considerable number of studies that
report effects of source (endorser) attributes (Artz, 1995; DeShields, et al., 1996; Eastin, 2001;
Feick & Higie, 1992; Hennessey & Anderson, 1990). Coherent in these studies is an assumption
that individuals’ perception of certain dimensions of source attributes will determine
persuasiveness of the source. The vast interest in the effects of source attributes is partly due to a
more common practice by a message originator (e.g., advertisers) to vary endorsers with
different attributes to enhance message effectiveness than vice versa. A number of endorser
attributes have been examined in the literature, including credibility, expertise, trustworthiness,
attractiveness, objectivity, and similarity. Some attributes (e.g., trustworthiness, expertise, and
goodwill) are conceptualized to constitute a larger construct (e.g., credibility). A meta-analysis
of effects of source attributes revealed that source attributes account for 4.5 percent of the
explained variance overall and an average of nine percent of the explained variance among
studies reporting significant findings (Wilson & Sherrell, 1993). Among the various attributes of


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