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Video Game Uses and Gratifications as Predictors of Use and Game Preference
Unformatted Document Text:  Video game U&G 7 determine motivations for game use and careful Likert scale development methodology to create a scale for measuring motivations for using video games based on user experiences. In the second study, we relate those motivations to patterns of video game genre preferences and amount of game use in a survey. Study 1 Despite the importance of measurement to drawing valid conclusions in empirical research (Cook & Campbell, 1979), development of a valid and reliable scale is often the weakest link in the research process (Emmert, 1989a). This is because inadequate attention is paid to proper scale design techniques. Design of a valid scale is a multi-step process requiring careful analysis and validation (Emmert, 1989b, Hunter, 1980, Nunnally, 1978). Greenberg (1974) developed the first popularly used U&G scale for television in his seminal study of British children. The study consisted of two parts: an analysis of children’s essays and a survey. Children (9-, 12-, and 15-year-olds) from a London school district wrote essays on “Why I Like to Watch Television.” The 180 essays collected were content-analyzed to determine reasons for watching television, resulting in eight clusters: to pass time; to forget, as a means of diversion, to learn about things, to learn about myself, for arousal, for relaxation, for companionship, and as a habit. These reasons were then developed into a 31-item scale that was included in a survey of 726 British 9-, 12-, and 15 year-olds. Subsequent television uses and gratifications scales built upon Greenberg’s original dimensions. In this study, we follow Greenberg’s multimethod approach to developing a scale for video game uses and gratifications. Subjects Throughout the present study, samples of 18-22 year olds were used. This population is particularly appropriate because they are the first generational cohort to grow up with video

Authors: Sherry, John. and Lucas, Kristen.
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Video game U&G 7
determine motivations for game use and careful Likert scale development methodology to create
a scale for measuring motivations for using video games based on user experiences. In the second
study, we relate those motivations to patterns of video game genre preferences and amount of
game use in a survey.
Study 1
Despite the importance of measurement to drawing valid conclusions in empirical
research (Cook & Campbell, 1979), development of a valid and reliable scale is often the
weakest link in the research process (Emmert, 1989a). This is because inadequate attention is
paid to proper scale design techniques. Design of a valid scale is a multi-step process requiring
careful analysis and validation (Emmert, 1989b, Hunter, 1980, Nunnally, 1978).
Greenberg (1974) developed the first popularly used U&G scale for television in his
seminal study of British children. The study consisted of two parts: an analysis of children’s
essays and a survey. Children (9-, 12-, and 15-year-olds) from a London school district wrote
essays on “Why I Like to Watch Television.” The 180 essays collected were content-analyzed to
determine reasons for watching television, resulting in eight clusters: to pass time; to forget, as a
means of diversion, to learn about things, to learn about myself, for arousal, for relaxation, for
companionship, and as a habit. These reasons were then developed into a 31-item scale that was
included in a survey of 726 British 9-, 12-, and 15 year-olds. Subsequent television uses and
gratifications scales built upon Greenberg’s original dimensions. In this study, we follow
Greenberg’s multimethod approach to developing a scale for video game uses and gratifications.
Subjects
Throughout the present study, samples of 18-22 year olds were used. This population is
particularly appropriate because they are the first generational cohort to grow up with video


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