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Re-conceptualizing interruptions in physician-patient interview: Co-operative and intrusive
Unformatted Document Text:  Interruption Patterns 8 seems to be divisive as well. West (1984) found that male physicians interrupted their female patients more frequently than male patients, and that female physicians did not interrupt male and female patients differently. In comparison with male physicians, female physicians have been found to treat patients, male or female, in a more egalitarian (e.g., Day, Norcini, Shea, & Benson, 1989; Hall, Epstein, DeCiantis, & McNeil, 1993; Hall, Irish, Roter, Ehrlich, & Miller, 1994), and empathic manner (Hooper, Comstock, Goodwin, & Goodwin, 1982; Meeuwesen, Schaap, & Van der Staak, 1991; Roter, Lipkin, & Korsgaard, 1991). Irish and Hall (1995) reported that few gender differences were found regarding interruption frequencies between males and females, for either physicians or patients. Street and Buller (1988), however, found that male physicians did not communicate in a more domineering fashion with female patients than with male patients, as did Waitskin (1985). Previous research has examined the gender of patients concerning a number of issues, but not interruption patterns per se. Researchers have reported that female patients receive more information than male patients (Hooper et al., 1982; Pendleton & Bochner, 1980; Waitzkin, 1985) because female patients requested more information than male patients (Pendleton & Bochner, 1980; Wallen, Waitzkin, & Stoeckle, 1979). Stewart (1984) found that physicians were more likely to ask the opinions or feelings of female patients than male patients. Several researchers have reported that physicians and patients communicate differently. Beisecker and Beisecker (1990) observed that patients make few attempts to make their concerns explicit. In other words, they are hesitant to be assertive and/or intrusive when expressing their viewpoints. Stimson and Webb (1975) discovered that

Authors: Li, Han., Krysko, Michael., Desroches, Naghmeh. and Deagle, George.
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Interruption Patterns
8
seems to be divisive as well. West (1984) found that male physicians interrupted their
female patients more frequently than male patients, and that female physicians did not
interrupt male and female patients differently. In comparison with male physicians,
female physicians have been found to treat patients, male or female, in a more egalitarian
(e.g., Day, Norcini, Shea, & Benson, 1989; Hall, Epstein, DeCiantis, & McNeil, 1993;
Hall, Irish, Roter, Ehrlich, & Miller, 1994), and empathic manner (Hooper, Comstock,
Goodwin, & Goodwin, 1982; Meeuwesen, Schaap, & Van der Staak, 1991; Roter,
Lipkin, & Korsgaard, 1991). Irish and Hall (1995) reported that few gender differences
were found regarding interruption frequencies between males and females, for either
physicians or patients. Street and Buller (1988), however, found that male physicians did
not communicate in a more domineering fashion with female patients than with male
patients, as did Waitskin (1985).
Previous research has examined the gender of patients concerning a number of
issues, but not interruption patterns per se. Researchers have reported that female patients
receive more information than male patients (Hooper et al., 1982; Pendleton & Bochner,
1980; Waitzkin, 1985) because female patients requested more information than male
patients (Pendleton & Bochner, 1980; Wallen, Waitzkin, & Stoeckle, 1979). Stewart
(1984) found that physicians were more likely to ask the opinions or feelings of female
patients than male patients.
Several researchers have reported that physicians and patients communicate
differently. Beisecker and Beisecker (1990) observed that patients make few attempts to
make their concerns explicit. In other words, they are hesitant to be assertive and/or
intrusive when expressing their viewpoints. Stimson and Webb (1975) discovered that


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