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A Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Family Planning Campaigns in Less Developed Countries
Unformatted Document Text:  Furthermore, the results can inform decision-making about realistic goals for future family planning campaigns. A total of 33 campaigns reported at least one outcome. There were small, positive effects of the campaigns on knowledge of family planning methods (r = .20), spousal communication (r = .10), behavioral intentions (r = .08), and use (r = .06). Exposure to the campaigns was high, and the average effect of recall on use was r = .14. Other measures were reported, but they had a very small number of studies contributing to the average effect sizes, making the results more tentative. The campaign effect size for use of modern contraceptives was smaller than that found by Bauman (1997). It is to be expected that that the small size true experiments analyzed in Bauman’s (1997) meta-analysis would not face as many implementation difficulties as field studies. Furthermore, most of the campaigns in the present study were targeting very large populations, in many cases an entire nation. It is harder to implement campaigns nationally and have an impact on national populations than on small groups. In comparison to domestic campaigns, the behavior results for international family planning campaigns was slightly larger than that found for U.S. campaigns involving sexual behaviors (Snyder et al., in press). As with the domestic studies (Snyder & Hamilton, 1999), the campaign effect on behavior was larger when controlling for exposure. This reinforces the advantage of measuring exposure to the campaign, rather than rely on pre/post or intervention/control comparison -- it is easier to detect behavioral effects when accounting for exposure. Partitioning on exposure controls for history effects, because everyone has the opportunity for the same external influences, and is a

Authors: Snyder, Leslie., Diop-Sidibe, Nafissatou. and Badiane, Louise.
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Furthermore, the results can inform decision-making about realistic goals for future
family planning campaigns.
A total of 33 campaigns reported at least one outcome. There were small,
positive effects of the campaigns on knowledge of family planning methods (r = .20),
spousal communication (r = .10), behavioral intentions (r = .08), and use (r = .06).
Exposure to the campaigns was high, and the average effect of recall on use was r = .14.
Other measures were reported, but they had a very small number of studies contributing
to the average effect sizes, making the results more tentative.
The campaign effect size for use of modern contraceptives was smaller than that
found by Bauman (1997). It is to be expected that that the small size true experiments
analyzed in Bauman’s (1997) meta-analysis would not face as many implementation
difficulties as field studies. Furthermore, most of the campaigns in the present study
were targeting very large populations, in many cases an entire nation. It is harder to
implement campaigns nationally and have an impact on national populations than on
small groups.
In comparison to domestic campaigns, the behavior results for international
family planning campaigns was slightly larger than that found for U.S. campaigns
involving sexual behaviors (Snyder et al., in press). As with the domestic studies (Snyder
& Hamilton, 1999), the campaign effect on behavior was larger when controlling for
exposure. This reinforces the advantage of measuring exposure to the campaign, rather
than rely on pre/post or intervention/control comparison -- it is easier to detect behavioral
effects when accounting for exposure. Partitioning on exposure controls for history
effects, because everyone has the opportunity for the same external influences, and is a


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