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A Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Family Planning Campaigns in Less Developed Countries
Unformatted Document Text:  good test of potential of the program to have an influence, once people are exposed (Flay & Cook, 1989). On the flip side, knowing that the campaign did not have an effect among the people who were exposed would be invaluable information for a planners trying to improve a campaign. The average level of exposure to the international family planning campaigns was much higher than that found in domestic health campaigns – 71% in the present study, compared to 36% domestically (Snyder & Hamilton, 2002). It may be that the difference is due to the higher degree of message clutter in the U.S. than in developing countries, which can make it difficult to catch people’s attention. It is noteworthy that this is the first meta-analysis of communication campaigns to include other outcomes besides behavior change. The results here suggest that the rates of change for knowledge and interpersonal communication are somewhat larger than for behavior change. In the absence of other results, these figures can provide some guidance for campaign planners and evaluators on knowledge and communication changes. It may be surprising to some that knowledge and interpersonal communication effects were not greater, given the long concern in family planning literature with the KAP gap (i.e. Rogers, 1979). Communication scholars often assume a hierarchy of effects, such that knowledge and attitudes should be easier to influence than behavior, and are sometime even taken as necessary conditions for behavior change (McGuire, 1981). The relatively small difference between use and the other outcomes could be examined in more depth in the future. We need more studies in the meta-analysis to look at the relationships between various outcomes. The largest number of studies that could

Authors: Snyder, Leslie., Diop-Sidibe, Nafissatou. and Badiane, Louise.
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good test of potential of the program to have an influence, once people are exposed (Flay
& Cook, 1989). On the flip side, knowing that the campaign did not have an effect among
the people who were exposed would be invaluable information for a planners trying to
improve a campaign.
The average level of exposure to the international family planning campaigns was
much higher than that found in domestic health campaigns – 71% in the present study,
compared to 36% domestically (Snyder & Hamilton, 2002). It may be that the difference
is due to the higher degree of message clutter in the U.S. than in developing countries,
which can make it difficult to catch people’s attention.
It is noteworthy that this is the first meta-analysis of communication campaigns to
include other outcomes besides behavior change. The results here suggest that the rates
of change for knowledge and interpersonal communication are somewhat larger than for
behavior change. In the absence of other results, these figures can provide some
guidance for campaign planners and evaluators on knowledge and communication
changes.
It may be surprising to some that knowledge and interpersonal communication
effects were not greater, given the long concern in family planning literature with the
KAP gap (i.e. Rogers, 1979). Communication scholars often assume a hierarchy of
effects, such that knowledge and attitudes should be easier to influence than behavior,
and are sometime even taken as necessary conditions for behavior change (McGuire,
1981). The relatively small difference between use and the other outcomes could be
examined in more depth in the future. We need more studies in the meta-analysis to look
at the relationships between various outcomes. The largest number of studies that could


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