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A Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Family Planning Campaigns in Less Developed Countries
Unformatted Document Text:  The main objective of the present study is to examine the average impact of a set of family planning campaigns. The study is valuable for a number of reasons. First, information about average impacts will begin to inform us what family planning campaigns can accomplish. Second, a comparison of different family planning outcomes, including knowledge and behavior, is useful in understanding which outcomes have been affected more successfully. Third, knowing the average impact of family planning campaigns will make it easier to specify goals for future campaigns. Fourth, the average effect size can be used as a benchmark for evaluations of future campaigns. Finally, the information can aid in estimating the sample sizes needed in future evaluations. Armed with the average effect size, evaluations can be designed with a large enough sample to show a statistically significant impact if the campaign has an average level of impact (Snyder et al., in press). The present study examined the ability of family planning campaigns to have an impact on different types of outcomes. The “bottom line” behavior examined in the present study was use of modern contraceptives and family planning in general. Behavior change is often more difficult to achieve than intermediate outcomes, such as knowledge (McGuire, 1981). By looking at a variety of intermediate outcomes, it may be possible to map the process of moving towards behavior change. The present study examined knowledge, approval of family planning, interpersonal communication, and behavioral intentions. Method The study population was family planning campaigns conducted by the Johns Hopkins University Center for Communication Programs since 1987. The study is the

Authors: Snyder, Leslie., Diop-Sidibe, Nafissatou. and Badiane, Louise.
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The main objective of the present study is to examine the average impact of a set
of family planning campaigns. The study is valuable for a number of reasons. First,
information about average impacts will begin to inform us what family planning
campaigns can accomplish. Second, a comparison of different family planning outcomes,
including knowledge and behavior, is useful in understanding which outcomes have been
affected more successfully. Third, knowing the average impact of family planning
campaigns will make it easier to specify goals for future campaigns. Fourth, the average
effect size can be used as a benchmark for evaluations of future campaigns. Finally, the
information can aid in estimating the sample sizes needed in future evaluations. Armed
with the average effect size, evaluations can be designed with a large enough sample to
show a statistically significant impact if the campaign has an average level of impact
(Snyder et al., in press).
The present study examined the ability of family planning campaigns to have an
impact on different types of outcomes. The “bottom line” behavior examined in the
present study was use of modern contraceptives and family planning in general.
Behavior change is often more difficult to achieve than intermediate outcomes, such as
knowledge (McGuire, 1981). By looking at a variety of intermediate outcomes, it may be
possible to map the process of moving towards behavior change. The present study
examined knowledge, approval of family planning, interpersonal communication, and
behavioral intentions.
Method
The study population was family planning campaigns conducted by the Johns
Hopkins University Center for Communication Programs since 1987. The study is the


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