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A Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Family Planning Campaigns in Less Developed Countries
Unformatted Document Text:  any family planning methods, and use of modern family planning methods by those exposed to the campaign. Analysis Effect sizes were computed using DSTAT (Johnson, 1995). For studies utilizing a quasi-experimental design, the authors used a formula supplied by John Hunter, one of the foremost experts in meta-analysis (used in Snyder & Hamilton, 2002). Both approaches use difference measures to calculate effect sizes based on percentages. There is some suggestion that these formulas provide conservative measures of effect sizes, such that the true population effect may be somewhat larger than that reported here. In addition, the Hunter & Schmidt (1990) approach to meta-analysis use here is also more conservative than other techniques (Johnson, Mullen, & Salas, 1995). The methods are consistent with the approach used in meta-analyses of domestic campaigns, which allows for comparisons. The results are weighted by the total n for each campaign. Both the weighted and unweighted results are given in the tables. The weighted results are used in the text, because it gives greater emphasis to larger sample studies, which can be considered to be more reliable and have more valid results. When studies reported values separately for men and women, the results were averaged. Results All of the campaigns dealt with family planning or reproductive health. A little more than a third of the campaigns were national in scope. Nearly all worked with at least one local partner organization whose goal was to promote reproductive health or family

Authors: Snyder, Leslie., Diop-Sidibe, Nafissatou. and Badiane, Louise.
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any family planning methods, and use of modern family planning methods by those
exposed to the campaign.
Analysis
Effect sizes were computed using DSTAT (Johnson, 1995). For studies utilizing
a quasi-experimental design, the authors used a formula supplied by John Hunter, one of
the foremost experts in meta-analysis (used in Snyder & Hamilton, 2002). Both
approaches use difference measures to calculate effect sizes based on percentages. There
is some suggestion that these formulas provide conservative measures of effect sizes,
such that the true population effect may be somewhat larger than that reported here. In
addition, the Hunter & Schmidt (1990) approach to meta-analysis use here is also more
conservative than other techniques (Johnson, Mullen, & Salas, 1995). The methods are
consistent with the approach used in meta-analyses of domestic campaigns, which allows
for comparisons.
The results are weighted by the total n for each campaign. Both the weighted and
unweighted results are given in the tables. The weighted results are used in the text,
because it gives greater emphasis to larger sample studies, which can be considered to be
more reliable and have more valid results.
When studies reported values separately for men and women, the results were
averaged.
Results
All of the campaigns dealt with family planning or reproductive health. A little
more than a third of the campaigns were national in scope. Nearly all worked with at least
one local partner organization whose goal was to promote reproductive health or family


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