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Role of Global Media Use on Adolescent Development in South Africa
Unformatted Document Text:  Global Media Use in South Africa Y relate specific needs and motivations to generalized solutions in the form of a specific medium or a media genre, could endure into adulthood. Theoretical background Expectancy-value theory (Palmgreen & Rayburn, 1985) investigates the interactive nature of attitudes in processing information. Attitudes towards media are considered as “an outcome of empirically located beliefs and of values (personal preferences)” (McQuail 1994, 305). Thus, one could say that the beliefs about and the evaluation of a medium’s values and performances determine an individual’s attitude towards it and eventually inform his or her choice-making processes. By differentiating gratifications obtained (GO) from gratifications sought (GS), the model attempts to explain both the choice of media and the avoidance of it (Figure 1, Appendix I). Also, the model explains the gradual, cumulative process of the beliefs and evaluations of the media with the feedback arrows, with feedbacks and the resulting expectancy values eventually guiding subsequent media uses. Studies using the expectancy-value approach look to operationalize the measures of gratifications. For instance, Swanson and Babrow (1989) identified fourteen gratifications measures in asking the survey respondents about their television news consumption behaviors. In essence, the theory tries to explain that the individual media use is affected by the expectations (of media performance) derived from perceived benefits obtained from previous media uses and that individuals perform frequent evaluations of the perceived

Authors: Lee, Anselm.
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Global Media Use in South Africa
Y
relate specific needs and motivations to generalized solutions in the form of a specific
medium or a media genre, could endure into adulthood.
Theoretical background
Expectancy-value theory (Palmgreen & Rayburn, 1985) investigates the interactive
nature of attitudes in processing information. Attitudes towards media are considered as “an
outcome of empirically located beliefs and of values (personal preferences)” (McQuail
1994, 305). Thus, one could say that the beliefs about and the evaluation of a medium’s
values and performances determine an individual’s attitude towards it and eventually
inform his or her choice-making processes. By differentiating gratifications obtained (GO)
from gratifications sought (GS), the model attempts to explain both the choice of media and
the avoidance of it (Figure 1, Appendix I). Also, the model explains the gradual, cumulative
process of the beliefs and evaluations of the media with the feedback arrows, with
feedbacks and the resulting expectancy values eventually guiding subsequent media uses.
Studies using the expectancy-value approach look to operationalize the measures of
gratifications. For instance, Swanson and Babrow (1989) identified fourteen gratifications
measures in asking the survey respondents about their television news consumption
behaviors.
In essence, the theory tries to explain that the individual media use is affected by the
expectations (of media performance) derived from perceived benefits obtained from
previous media uses and that individuals perform frequent evaluations of the perceived


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