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Role of Global Media Use on Adolescent Development in South Africa
Unformatted Document Text:  Global Media Use in South Africa ] wishes to be independent (Larson, 1995). Exploration of identities during adolescence Social psychology research has long explored the complexity of ethnic (or cultural) identity development among youths. Phinney (1989), for instance, observed that previous studies on different identity development stages looked at the presence (or absence) of exploration and commitment. An absence of both exploration and commitment would mean a person has a diffuse identity. If one is committed to his or her ethnicity without having explored it, such a person has a foreclosed identity (usually inheriting parental values). The stage at which one explores without having made a commitment is referred to as a moratorium stage. Finally, when both exploration and commitment are present, the person has the “achieved” ethnic identity status. Hill (1983) identified identity (discovering the self and understanding one’s role in social settings), intimacy (forming relationships with others), autonomy (developing a sense of social and psychological independence), and sexuality (coping with stress and confusion that come during the period of puberty and developing a better-defined sense of sex roles and gender relationships) as major tasks that, while not exclusive to adolescents, take on particular importance during the period of adolescence (Chapin, 2000). Similarly, Arnett (1995) identified five needs categories relevant to adolescents: entertainment, identity formation, high sensation, coping, and youth culture identification. One could also say that most of the adolescent needs related to media use are also related to advancing one or more of the major tasks identified. Sometimes the need to

Authors: Lee, Anselm.
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Global Media Use in South Africa
]
wishes to be independent (Larson, 1995).
Exploration of identities during adolescence
Social psychology research has long explored the complexity of ethnic (or cultural)
identity development among youths. Phinney (1989), for instance, observed that previous
studies on different identity development stages looked at the presence (or absence) of
exploration and commitment. An absence of both exploration and commitment would mean
a person has a diffuse identity. If one is committed to his or her ethnicity without having
explored it, such a person has a foreclosed identity (usually inheriting parental values). The
stage at which one explores without having made a commitment is referred to as a
moratorium stage. Finally, when both exploration and commitment are present, the person
has the “achieved” ethnic identity status.
Hill (1983) identified identity (discovering the self and understanding one’s role in
social settings), intimacy (forming relationships with others), autonomy (developing a sense
of social and psychological independence), and sexuality (coping with stress and confusion
that come during the period of puberty and developing a better-defined sense of sex roles
and gender relationships) as major tasks that, while not exclusive to adolescents, take on
particular importance during the period of adolescence (Chapin, 2000). Similarly, Arnett
(1995) identified five needs categories relevant to adolescents: entertainment, identity
formation, high sensation, coping, and youth culture identification.
One could also say that most of the adolescent needs related to media use are also
related to advancing one or more of the major tasks identified. Sometimes the need to


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