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Antecedents of Proenvironmental Behaviors: An Examination of Cultural Values, Self-Efficacy, and Environmental Attitudes
Unformatted Document Text:  ICA-2-11744 Antecedents of Proenvironmental Behaviors 12 an average of 20 years. Of the respondents, 40 percent were male and 60 percent were female. About 72 percent of the participants majored in advertising, public relations, or telecommunications and over 82 percent were Caucasians. Missing data were treated with listwise deletion of cases and the final sample size of 302 was used for analysis. Measures Collectivism Five items were used to measure collectivism. Responses were measured on a 1 to 5 scale from “not at all important” to “extremely important.” In this study, collectivist orientation was assessed in terms of priority of group goals, perceived importance of unity with others, and harmony with others (Yamaguchi 1990). Perceived consumer effectiveness (PCE) Perceived consumer effectiveness (PCE) was measured by a scale consisting of three items: “I can protect the environment by buying products that are friendly to the environment,” “I feel I can help solve natural resource problems by conserving water and energy,” and “Each person’s behavior can have a positive effect on society by signing a petition in support of promoting the environment.” Respondents were asked their level of agreement/disagreement with Likert-type statements on a 7-point scale. Environmental attitudes Five items were measured to indicate individuals’ attitudes toward the environment: four cognitive items selected from the 12-item New Environmental Paradigm (NEP) scale (Dunlap and Van Liere 1978) (e.g., “When humans interfere with nature it often produces disastrous consequences,” “The balance of nature is very delicate and easily upset,” “Humans must live in harmony with nature in order to survive,” and

Authors: Kim, Yeonshin. and Choi, Sejung Marina.
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ICA-2-11744 Antecedents of Proenvironmental Behaviors
12
an average of 20 years. Of the respondents, 40 percent were male and 60 percent were
female. About 72 percent of the participants majored in advertising, public relations, or
telecommunications and over 82 percent were Caucasians. Missing data were treated
with listwise deletion of cases and the final sample size of 302 was used for analysis.
Measures
Collectivism
Five items were used to measure collectivism. Responses were measured on a 1
to 5 scale from “not at all important” to “extremely important.” In this study, collectivist
orientation was assessed in terms of priority of group goals, perceived importance of
unity with others, and harmony with others (Yamaguchi 1990).
Perceived consumer effectiveness (PCE)
Perceived consumer effectiveness (PCE) was measured by a scale consisting of
three items: “I can protect the environment by buying products that are friendly to the
environment,” “I feel I can help solve natural resource problems by conserving water and
energy,” and “Each person’s behavior can have a positive effect on society by signing a
petition in support of promoting the environment.” Respondents were asked their level of
agreement/disagreement with Likert-type statements on a 7-point scale.
Environmental attitudes
Five items were measured to indicate individuals’ attitudes toward the
environment: four cognitive items selected from the 12-item New Environmental
Paradigm (NEP) scale (Dunlap and Van Liere 1978) (e.g., “When humans interfere with
nature it often produces disastrous consequences,” “The balance of nature is very delicate
and easily upset,” “Humans must live in harmony with nature in order to survive,” and


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