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Antecedents of Proenvironmental Behaviors: An Examination of Cultural Values, Self-Efficacy, and Environmental Attitudes
Unformatted Document Text:  ICA-2-11744 Antecedents of Proenvironmental Behaviors 4 more interdependent and group-oriented. Individualistic cultures reflect independence, self-reliance, freedom of choice, and a high level of competition (Triandis 1989). Collectivistic cultures are characterized as interdependence, in-group harmony, family security, group-oriented goals, social hierarchies, cooperation, and a low level of competition (Hosfstede 1980; Triandis 1995). This cultural value and its effects have often been investigated at the cultural level (e.g., differences across cultures in cross- cultural studies). However, others argue that an individual may possess both individualistic and collectivistic tendencies and thus personal beliefs related to the cultural orientation can be examined at the individual, psychological level (Triandis 1989, 1994). The construct of individualism versus collectivism has been linked to many social behaviors and differences in this cultural orientation have been found to result in differences in behaviors. Correspondingly, individuals’ value orientations toward individualism versus collectivism might influence their motivation to engage in environmentally conscious behaviors. However, empirical research on the relationship between the cultural value orientation and proenvironmental behaviors remains scarce and the findings are inconclusive. A study by McCarty and Shrum (1994) found a positive relationship between collectivism and reported recycling behaviors. That is, people who are collectivistic are more likely to engage in recycling behaviors than those who possess individualism- orientations because collectivistic individuals tend to be more cooperative, be more willing to help others, and emphasize group goals over personal ones than individualistic people. Similarly, Li (1997) found positive effects of the collectivistic orientation on

Authors: Kim, Yeonshin. and Choi, Sejung Marina.
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ICA-2-11744 Antecedents of Proenvironmental Behaviors 4
more interdependent and group-oriented. Individualistic cultures reflect independence,
self-reliance, freedom of choice, and a high level of competition (Triandis 1989).
Collectivistic cultures are characterized as interdependence, in-group harmony, family
security, group-oriented goals, social hierarchies, cooperation, and a low level of
competition (Hosfstede 1980; Triandis 1995). This cultural value and its effects have
often been investigated at the cultural level (e.g., differences across cultures in cross-
cultural studies). However, others argue that an individual may possess both
individualistic and collectivistic tendencies and thus personal beliefs related to the
cultural orientation can be examined at the individual, psychological level (Triandis 1989,
1994).
The construct of individualism versus collectivism has been linked to many social
behaviors and differences in this cultural orientation have been found to result in
differences in behaviors. Correspondingly, individuals’ value orientations toward
individualism versus collectivism might influence their motivation to engage in
environmentally conscious behaviors. However, empirical research on the relationship
between the cultural value orientation and proenvironmental behaviors remains scarce
and the findings are inconclusive.
A study by McCarty and Shrum (1994) found a positive relationship between
collectivism and reported recycling behaviors. That is, people who are collectivistic are
more likely to engage in recycling behaviors than those who possess individualism-
orientations because collectivistic individuals tend to be more cooperative, be more
willing to help others, and emphasize group goals over personal ones than individualistic
people. Similarly, Li (1997) found positive effects of the collectivistic orientation on


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