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Antecedents of Proenvironmental Behaviors: An Examination of Cultural Values, Self-Efficacy, and Environmental Attitudes
Unformatted Document Text:  ICA-2-11744 Antecedents of Proenvironmental Behaviors 8 Walgren (1991) demonstrate that PCE is distinct from environmental concern and contributes uniquely to the prediction of certain proenvironmental behaviors. Caution should be taken when understanding the role of PCE in predicting behaviors, however. Unlike attitudes that have proven to be a significant predictor of general proenvironmental behaviors, PCE appeared to significantly predict specific behaviors (Ellen, Weiner, and Cobb-Walgren 1991; Kim 2002). The greater perceived effectiveness is associated with the greater likelihood of performing individually-oriented behaviors because the degree to which an individual feels his or her efforts to make a difference influences his or her engaging in (e.g., recycling) such behaviors, as opposed to political behaviors, according to social dilemma theory. PCE is affected by knowledge and direct and indirect experiences (Brown 1979; Thompson 1981). Some people believe that their actions influence particular outcomes while others consider themselves to have little influence over the outcomes. PCE is viewed to be a personality trait, which refers to “an individual’s characteristic pattern of thought, emotion, and behavior, together with the psychological mechanisms-hidden or not-behind those patterns” (Funder 1997, pp. 1-2). Personality traits are formed in a cultural environment and thus are likely to be influenced by cultural orientations that are accepted well in the society. For instance, individuals in collectivistic cultures are interdependent within in-groups and their behaviors are shaped primarily on the basis of in-group norms (Mills and Clark 1982). In individualistic societies, people are autonomous and independent from their in-groups and they behave mostly based on their attitudes, not the norms of their in-groups (Triandis 2001). People in collectivistic cultures (e.g., Philippines) rated themselves lower on individual traits (independence,

Authors: Kim, Yeonshin. and Choi, Sejung Marina.
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ICA-2-11744 Antecedents of Proenvironmental Behaviors 8
Walgren (1991) demonstrate that PCE is distinct from environmental concern and
contributes uniquely to the prediction of certain proenvironmental behaviors.
Caution should be taken when understanding the role of PCE in predicting
behaviors, however. Unlike attitudes that have proven to be a significant predictor of
general proenvironmental behaviors, PCE appeared to significantly predict specific
behaviors (Ellen, Weiner, and Cobb-Walgren 1991; Kim 2002). The greater perceived
effectiveness is associated with the greater likelihood of performing individually-oriented
behaviors because the degree to which an individual feels his or her efforts to make a
difference influences his or her engaging in (e.g., recycling) such behaviors, as opposed
to political behaviors, according to social dilemma theory.
PCE is affected by knowledge and direct and indirect experiences (Brown 1979;
Thompson 1981). Some people believe that their actions influence particular outcomes
while others consider themselves to have little influence over the outcomes. PCE is
viewed to be a personality trait, which refers to “an individual’s characteristic pattern of
thought, emotion, and behavior, together with the psychological mechanisms-hidden or
not-behind those patterns” (Funder 1997, pp. 1-2). Personality traits are formed in a
cultural environment and thus are likely to be influenced by cultural orientations that are
accepted well in the society. For instance, individuals in collectivistic cultures are
interdependent within in-groups and their behaviors are shaped primarily on the basis of
in-group norms (Mills and Clark 1982). In individualistic societies, people are
autonomous and independent from their in-groups and they behave mostly based on their
attitudes, not the norms of their in-groups (Triandis 2001). People in collectivistic
cultures (e.g., Philippines) rated themselves lower on individual traits (independence,


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