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Engaging the Surveillance System: Cognitive, Emotional, and Physiological Responses to Inappropriate Leader Displays
Unformatted Document Text:  Leader Displays 11 president is behaving in an unexpected fashion. In this sense inappropriate displays paired with a straightforward reporter voiceover represent a low redundancy condition, or mismatch, between the moving images and audio narration. Consequently, memory for information from the audio track should suffer. On this basis it can be predicted that: H4: Recognition memory for verbal information in the presidential reaction segments will be better for appropriate displays than inappropriate displays. Method To test these hypotheses, a repeated measures 4 x 4 x 4 mixed between- and within-subjects fractionally factorial experiment was conducted. The between-subjects factor was stimulus order, and the within-subjects factors were news image emotion and presidential reaction emotion. The dependent variables were subjects’ facial EMG responses, skin conductance, heart rate, self-reported emotion, and recognition memory for information in the audio portion of the reaction segments. The news image and presidential reaction factors consisted of valence (negative and positive affect) and arousal (low and high intensity), which produced the following four treatment combinations: negative-low, negative-high, positive-low, and positive-high. Though it was not included in the analysis, the design also featured a repetition factor, news story topic, that had four levels corresponding to different compelling news events that occurred during Clinton’s first term in office: the bombing of the Oklahoma City federal building, the deployment of U.S. troops to Haiti, U.S. intervention in Bosnia, and the shutdown of the federal government.

Authors: Bucy, Erik. and Bradley, Samuel.
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Leader Displays 11
president is behaving in an unexpected fashion. In this sense inappropriate displays paired
with a straightforward reporter voiceover represent a low redundancy condition, or
mismatch, between the moving images and audio narration. Consequently, memory for
information from the audio track should suffer. On this basis it can be predicted that:
H4: Recognition memory for verbal information in the presidential reaction
segments will be better for appropriate displays than inappropriate displays.
Method
To test these hypotheses, a repeated measures 4 x 4 x 4 mixed between- and
within-subjects fractionally factorial experiment was conducted. The between-subjects
factor was stimulus order, and the within-subjects factors were news image emotion and
presidential reaction emotion. The dependent variables were subjects’ facial EMG
responses, skin conductance, heart rate, self-reported emotion, and recognition memory
for information in the audio portion of the reaction segments. The news image and
presidential reaction factors consisted of valence (negative and positive affect) and
arousal (low and high intensity), which produced the following four treatment
combinations: negative-low, negative-high, positive-low, and positive-high. Though it
was not included in the analysis, the design also featured a repetition factor, news story
topic, that had four levels corresponding to different compelling news events that
occurred during Clinton’s first term in office: the bombing of the Oklahoma City federal
building, the deployment of U.S. troops to Haiti, U.S. intervention in Bosnia, and the
shutdown of the federal government.


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