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Engaging the Surveillance System: Cognitive, Emotional, and Physiological Responses to Inappropriate Leader Displays
Unformatted Document Text:  Leader Displays 12 Participants A total of 41 graduate and undergraduate student subjects from courses in telecommunications and information science at a large Midwestern university participated in the experiment. The average age was 22 (range = 18 to 47) and the average education level was some college. An equal number of men (n = 20) and women (n = 21) took part in the study. In terms of partisan identification, there were twice as many declared Democrats as Republicans in the experimental group, but the average feeling thermometer rating of Clinton was not very warm (61/100). Participants’ political leanings grouped around the ideological center and political interest levels were moderate (M = 4.00, where 1 = very interested and 7 = not very interested). Subjects received extra credit for their participation. Stimulus Construction A series of eight unique news story-presentational reaction sequences were edited together to resemble standard political news packages that might air on the evening news. The four stories used as news topics in the study (mentioned above) were selected on the basis of their crisis character; each of the stories ranked among the top 10 issues about the president on network evening news between August 1994 and July 1995 (Graber, 1997, p. 290). Footage for the stimulus tapes were recorded off-air from the three major U.S. network nightly news programs, as well as CNN, C-SPAN, and MSNBC. Additional material was obtained from the Television News Archive at Vanderbilt University. News images and presidential displays used in the stimulus materials were subjected to a pre- test and classified on the basis of their emotional valence and intensity. The strongest

Authors: Bucy, Erik. and Bradley, Samuel.
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Leader Displays 12
Participants
A total of 41 graduate and undergraduate student subjects from courses in
telecommunications and information science at a large Midwestern university
participated in the experiment. The average age was 22 (range = 18 to 47) and the average
education level was some college. An equal number of men (n = 20) and women (n = 21)
took part in the study. In terms of partisan identification, there were twice as many
declared Democrats as Republicans in the experimental group, but the average feeling
thermometer rating of Clinton was not very warm (61/100). Participants’ political
leanings grouped around the ideological center and political interest levels were moderate
(M = 4.00, where 1 = very interested and 7 = not very interested). Subjects received extra
credit for their participation.
Stimulus Construction
A series of eight unique news story-presentational reaction sequences were edited
together to resemble standard political news packages that might air on the evening news.
The four stories used as news topics in the study (mentioned above) were selected on the
basis of their crisis character; each of the stories ranked among the top 10 issues about the
president on network evening news between August 1994 and July 1995 (Graber, 1997,
p. 290). Footage for the stimulus tapes were recorded off-air from the three major U.S.
network nightly news programs, as well as CNN, C-SPAN, and MSNBC. Additional
material was obtained from the Television News Archive at Vanderbilt University. News
images and presidential displays used in the stimulus materials were subjected to a pre-
test and classified on the basis of their emotional valence and intensity. The strongest


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