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Engaging the Surveillance System: Cognitive, Emotional, and Physiological Responses to Inappropriate Leader Displays
Unformatted Document Text:  Leader Displays 14 on each of the subject’s forearms. Heart rate data was recorded as milliseconds between heart beats and converted to beats per minute for analysis. Finally, zygomatic and corrugator muscle activation (facial EMG) was measured by placing two electrodes on the surface of the cheek over the zygomaticus major muscle and two electrodes along the surface of the brow over the corrugator supercilii muscle (see Cacioppo, Petty, Losch, & Kim, 1986) . Physiological data were collected by means of a computer-video interface (see Newhagen, 1993) beginning 5 seconds before the start of each story-reaction sequence and ending at the conclusion of each sequence. 5 Subjects were then shown a series of four news story-presidential reaction sequences that varied by story topic, news image emotion, and presidential display appropriateness. A practice story-reaction sequence of the TWA flight 800 explosion was also included on the tape to familiarize participants with the stimuli. Participants were instructed to pay equal attention to the news stories and presidential reactions. Following each story-reaction sequence, participants were also asked to rate their subjective emotional experience using the Self Assessment Manikin (SAM) scales (Lang, 1993). The SAM scales are 9-point pictorial indices that measure emotional responses along three dimensions: valence (negative to positive), arousal (calm to excited), and dominance (in control to not in control). As a distractor task before the memory test, subjects also listened to a series of 10 radio advertisements unrelated to the news stories. At the end of the study, participants completed an exit questionnaire that included political, media, and demographic items as well as memory questions from the audio track of the message sequences. They were then debriefed and thanked for their time.

Authors: Bucy, Erik. and Bradley, Samuel.
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Leader Displays 14
on each of the subject’s forearms. Heart rate data was recorded as milliseconds between
heart beats and converted to beats per minute for analysis. Finally, zygomatic and
corrugator muscle activation (facial EMG) was measured by placing two electrodes on
the surface of the cheek over the zygomaticus major muscle and two electrodes along the
surface of the brow over the corrugator supercilii muscle (see Cacioppo, Petty, Losch, &
Kim, 1986) . Physiological data were collected by means of a computer-video interface
(see Newhagen, 1993) beginning 5 seconds before the start of each story-reaction
sequence and ending at the conclusion of each sequence.
5
Subjects were then shown a series of four news story-presidential reaction
sequences that varied by story topic, news image emotion, and presidential display
appropriateness. A practice story-reaction sequence of the TWA flight 800 explosion was
also included on the tape to familiarize participants with the stimuli. Participants were
instructed to pay equal attention to the news stories and presidential reactions. Following
each story-reaction sequence, participants were also asked to rate their subjective
emotional experience using the Self Assessment Manikin (SAM) scales (Lang, 1993).
The SAM scales are 9-point pictorial indices that measure emotional responses along
three dimensions: valence (negative to positive), arousal (calm to excited), and
dominance (in control to not in control). As a distractor task before the memory test,
subjects also listened to a series of 10 radio advertisements unrelated to the news stories.
At the end of the study, participants completed an exit questionnaire that included
political, media, and demographic items as well as memory questions from the audio
track of the message sequences. They were then debriefed and thanked for their time.


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