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Engaging the Surveillance System: Cognitive, Emotional, and Physiological Responses to Inappropriate Leader Displays
Unformatted Document Text:  Leader Displays 15 Results For the analysis, both of the within-subjects experimental factors–news image emotion and presidential reaction emotion–were collapsed on valence and arousal to facilitate parsimonious interpretation of the results (see Bucy & Newhagen, 1999). Hypothesis 1A predicted that appropriate leader displays, operationalized here as low- intensity reactions to negative news or high-intensity reactions to positive news (see, Bucy, 2001), would lead to a significant increase in zygomatic (i.e., smiling) activation. Further, the hypothesis predicted that although corrugator muscle activation (i.e., frowning) would increase in response to all display conditions, it would not be especially strong following inappropriate displays. Instead, it was expected that frowning would follow the emotional congruence of the leader for appropriate displays. This hypothesis was tested by two repeated-measures ANOVAs. As expected, appropriate low-intensity reactions to positive news elicited the most zygomatic activation, F(1,36) = 4.21, p = .048, ε 2 = .08. Participants smiled the most in response to low-intensity responses to positive news (see Figure 2). The second part of the hypothesis predicted that appropriate responses would have less effect on corrugator activation, which instead would be driven by an emotionally congruent response pattern. Here we see that appropriate responses elicited less frowning, but the difference was not significant, F(1,36) = .08, p = .86. Instead it appears that frowning was driven by display evocativeness, as evidenced by a significant reaction valence by reaction intensity interaction for the corrugator data, F(1,37) = 11.95, p = .001, ε 2 = .22. As shown in Figure 2, smiling was least evident during high-intensity, negative reactions and low-intensity, positive reactions. Accordingly, it appears that

Authors: Bucy, Erik. and Bradley, Samuel.
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Leader Displays 15
Results
For the analysis, both of the within-subjects experimental factors–news image
emotion and presidential reaction emotion–were collapsed on valence and arousal to
facilitate parsimonious interpretation of the results (see Bucy & Newhagen, 1999).
Hypothesis 1A predicted that appropriate leader displays, operationalized here as low-
intensity reactions to negative news or high-intensity reactions to positive news (see,
Bucy, 2001), would lead to a significant increase in zygomatic (i.e., smiling) activation.
Further, the hypothesis predicted that although corrugator muscle activation (i.e.,
frowning) would increase in response to all display conditions, it would not be especially
strong following inappropriate displays. Instead, it was expected that frowning would
follow the emotional congruence of the leader for appropriate displays. This hypothesis
was tested by two repeated-measures ANOVAs. As expected, appropriate low-intensity
reactions to positive news elicited the most zygomatic activation, F(1,36) = 4.21, p =
.048,
ε
2
= .08. Participants smiled the most in response to low-intensity responses to
positive news (see Figure 2).
The second part of the hypothesis predicted that appropriate responses would have
less effect on corrugator activation, which instead would be driven by an emotionally
congruent response pattern. Here we see that appropriate responses elicited less frowning,
but the difference was not significant, F(1,36) = .08, p = .86. Instead it appears that
frowning was driven by display evocativeness, as evidenced by a significant reaction
valence by reaction intensity interaction for the corrugator data, F(1,37) = 11.95, p =
.001,
ε
2
= .22. As shown in Figure 2, smiling was least evident during high-intensity,
negative reactions and low-intensity, positive reactions. Accordingly, it appears that


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