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Engaging the Surveillance System: Cognitive, Emotional, and Physiological Responses to Inappropriate Leader Displays
Unformatted Document Text:  Leader Displays 17 it appears that frowning in response to a positive reaction to positive news occurs within the first second of stimulus onset and does not diminish during the first 15 seconds of the display. This is not surprising, given that research has shown that identification of a face can occur within 1/20 th of a second (Watanabe et al., 1999). Conversely, frowning appears to steadily increase during negative reactions to either positive or negative news. The news valence by reaction valence by time interaction was also significant, F(14, 548) = 2.39, p = .003, ε 2 = .06, indicating that frowning intensifies the longer that subjects view Clinton’s display behavior. Hypothesis 1B was therefore supported. Fig. 3 Corrugator Muscle Activation Over Time 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Seconds Neg News, Neg Reac. Neg News, Pos Reac. Pos News, Neg Reac. Pos News, Pos Reac. Hypothesis 2 predicted that high intensity Clinton displays would elicit more attention than low intensity displays, as evidenced by cardiac deceleration. As predicted, there was a main effect for display intensity on heart rate, F(1,34) = 7.48, p = .01, ε 2 = .16. As shown in Figure 4, heart rate was slower for high intensity displays (M = 73.59

Authors: Bucy, Erik. and Bradley, Samuel.
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Leader Displays 17
it appears that frowning in response to a positive reaction to positive news occurs within
the first second of stimulus onset and does not diminish during the first 15 seconds of the
display. This is not surprising, given that research has shown that identification of a face
can occur within 1/20
th
of a second (Watanabe et al., 1999). Conversely, frowning appears
to steadily increase during negative reactions to either positive or negative news. The
news valence by reaction valence by time interaction was also significant, F(14, 548) =
2.39, p = .003,
ε
2
= .06, indicating that frowning intensifies the longer that subjects view
Clinton’s display behavior. Hypothesis 1B was therefore supported.
Fig. 3 Corrugator Muscle Activation Over Time
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
6
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Seconds
Neg News, Neg Reac.
Neg News, Pos Reac.
Pos News, Neg Reac.
Pos News, Pos Reac.
Hypothesis 2 predicted that high intensity Clinton displays would elicit more
attention than low intensity displays, as evidenced by cardiac deceleration. As predicted,
there was a main effect for display intensity on heart rate, F(1,34) = 7.48, p = .01,
ε
2
=
.16. As shown in Figure 4, heart rate was slower for high intensity displays (M = 73.59


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