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Engaging the Surveillance System: Cognitive, Emotional, and Physiological Responses to Inappropriate Leader Displays
Unformatted Document Text:  Leader Displays 2 image as a face occurs approximately 1/20 th of a second (47 msec) after stimulus onset (Watanabe, Kakigi, Koyama, & Kirino, 1999), the equivalent of about two frames of video. Human faces appear to undergo specialized processing in the fusiform gyrus of the brain, in an area commonly called the Fusiform Face Area. Facial Mimicry One of the best documented effects of facial processing research is the tendency of observers to spontaneously mimic the expressive display of the person being observed, a response known as facial mimicry (see Dimberg, 1982; Laird, Alibozak, Davainis et al., 1994). Although this form of emotional contagion occurs with both positive and negative displays (e.g., smiles and frowns), “smiles seem to be especially potent, having the capacity to induce smiles in others directly and almost irresistibly” (Levenson, 1996, p. 191). Mimicry may be observed behaviorally, as video recorded facial expressions, or physiologically, through facial EMG (electromyographic) measures. EMG measures, which record muscle activation potential before a smile or frown becomes visibly observable, are considerably more precise and less subject to social desirability biasing than overt expressions. Facial mimicry effects have been documented in face-to-face as well as mediated contexts, notably through television. The notion of measuring muscle activity in the face to index emotional valence dates back to William James (1884). James theorized that not only did facial muscle activity serve as a marker of emotional tone but that it was implicated in the experience of the emotions themselves. Modern physchophysiology uses EMG to measure this muscle activity. Facial EMG records the action potential of different muscle groups in the face associated with movement (Cacioppo, Tassinary, & Fridlund, 1990). Studies measuring

Authors: Bucy, Erik. and Bradley, Samuel.
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background image
Leader Displays 2
image as a face occurs approximately 1/20
th
of a second (47 msec) after stimulus onset
(Watanabe, Kakigi, Koyama, & Kirino, 1999), the equivalent of about two frames of
video. Human faces appear to undergo specialized processing in the fusiform gyrus of the
brain, in an area commonly called the Fusiform Face Area.
Facial Mimicry
One of the best documented effects of facial processing research is the tendency
of observers to spontaneously mimic the expressive display of the person being observed,
a response known as facial mimicry (see Dimberg, 1982; Laird, Alibozak, Davainis et al.,
1994). Although this form of emotional contagion occurs with both positive and negative
displays (e.g., smiles and frowns), “smiles seem to be especially potent, having the
capacity to induce smiles in others directly and almost irresistibly” (Levenson, 1996, p.
191). Mimicry may be observed behaviorally, as video recorded facial expressions, or
physiologically, through facial EMG (electromyographic) measures. EMG measures,
which record muscle activation potential before a smile or frown becomes visibly
observable, are considerably more precise and less subject to social desirability biasing
than overt expressions. Facial mimicry effects have been documented in face-to-face as
well as mediated contexts, notably through television.
The notion of measuring muscle activity in the face to index emotional valence
dates back to William James (1884). James theorized that not only did facial muscle
activity serve as a marker of emotional tone but that it was implicated in the experience of
the emotions themselves. Modern physchophysiology uses EMG to measure this muscle
activity. Facial EMG records the action potential of different muscle groups in the face
associated with movement (Cacioppo, Tassinary, & Fridlund, 1990). Studies measuring


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