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Engaging the Surveillance System: Cognitive, Emotional, and Physiological Responses to Inappropriate Leader Displays
Unformatted Document Text:  Leader Displays 28 anger and fear—than positive emotion in response to Vice President Dan Quayle’s happiness/reassurance displays (Masters, 2001). 3 Appropriateness has been studied in the interpersonal literature as a feature of communication competence. Appropriate communication, according to this conceptualization, avoids violating interpersonal rules of conduct and “abides by the contextually generated normative expectations of the conversants” (Cupach & Spitzberg, 1983, p. 365). 4 Isolating Clinton’s nonverbal behavior provided greater experimental control than presenting both his image and voice. Research of President Reagan’s display behavior has shown that effects are stronger in image-only media conditions than when Reagan’s image was accompanied by his voice (McHugo et al., 1985). 5 For details about the experimental procedure and apparatus, see Bolls, A. Lang, and Potter (2001), who conducted a physiological study of radio advertisements during the same data collection.

Authors: Bucy, Erik. and Bradley, Samuel.
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Leader Displays 28
anger and fear—than positive emotion in response to Vice President Dan Quayle’s
happiness/reassurance displays (Masters, 2001).
3
Appropriateness has been studied in the interpersonal literature as a feature of
communication competence. Appropriate communication, according to this
conceptualization, avoids violating interpersonal rules of conduct and “abides by the
contextually generated normative expectations of the conversants” (Cupach & Spitzberg,
1983, p. 365).
4
Isolating Clinton’s nonverbal behavior provided greater experimental control than
presenting both his image and voice. Research of President Reagan’s display behavior
has shown that effects are stronger in image-only media conditions than when Reagan’s
image was accompanied by his voice (McHugo et al., 1985).
5
For details about the experimental procedure and apparatus, see Bolls, A. Lang, and
Potter (2001), who conducted a physiological study of radio advertisements during the
same data collection.


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