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Engaging the Surveillance System: Cognitive, Emotional, and Physiological Responses to Inappropriate Leader Displays
Unformatted Document Text:  Leader Displays 3 EMG often measure the activity of the corrugator and zygomatic muscle groups. The zygomatic muscle groups are just outside the corners of the mouth. When contracted, they draw the corners of the mouth back and upward, as happens with smiling (Fridlund & Izard, 1983). The corrugator muscle group is located on the brow adjacent to the bridge of the nose. When contracted, this muscle group pulls the brow down and in, as is the case when frowning (Fridlund & Izard, 1983). Stimuli of different valence have been shown to elicit differential activation of these two muscle groups (Cacioppo, Tassinary, & Fridlund, 1986). Facial EMG techniques have been used to measure reactions to still pictures of varying valence (P. J. Lang, Greenwald, Bradley, & Hamm, 1993), positive and negative spoken words (Wexler, Warrenburg, Schwartz, & Janer, 1992), and affective cues in spoken words (Hietanen, Surakka, & Linnankoski, 1998). In a mass communication context, facial EMG has been employed to measure responses to television commercials (Hazlett & Hazlett, 1999), radio advertisements (Bolls, A. Lang, & Potter, 2001), and the televised expressive displays of political leaders (Lanzetta, Sullivan, Masters, McHugo, 1985). When comparing EMG with self-report data, Hazlett and Hazlett (1999) concluded that EMG provided a better gradient of responses to particular commercials than did self- report. Furthermore, Bolls, A. Lang, and Potter (2001) found that EMG responses were reliable with message valence pre-ratings using the widely validated Self-Assessment Manikin scale (P.J. Lang et al., 1993). In political communication, facial mimicry responses to the televised displays of Ronald Reagan have been demonstrated in both image-only and image-plus-sound excerpts of Reagan’s speeches, press conferences, and debates by an interdisciplinary

Authors: Bucy, Erik. and Bradley, Samuel.
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Leader Displays 3
EMG often measure the activity of the corrugator and zygomatic muscle groups. The
zygomatic muscle groups are just outside the corners of the mouth. When contracted, they
draw the corners of the mouth back and upward, as happens with smiling (Fridlund &
Izard, 1983). The corrugator muscle group is located on the brow adjacent to the bridge
of the nose. When contracted, this muscle group pulls the brow down and in, as is the
case when frowning (Fridlund & Izard, 1983).
Stimuli of different valence have been shown to elicit differential activation of
these two muscle groups (Cacioppo, Tassinary, & Fridlund, 1986). Facial EMG
techniques have been used to measure reactions to still pictures of varying valence (P. J.
Lang, Greenwald, Bradley, & Hamm, 1993), positive and negative spoken words
(Wexler, Warrenburg, Schwartz, & Janer, 1992), and affective cues in spoken words
(Hietanen, Surakka, & Linnankoski, 1998). In a mass communication context, facial
EMG has been employed to measure responses to television commercials (Hazlett &
Hazlett, 1999), radio advertisements (Bolls, A. Lang, & Potter, 2001), and the televised
expressive displays of political leaders (Lanzetta, Sullivan, Masters, McHugo, 1985).
When comparing EMG with self-report data, Hazlett and Hazlett (1999) concluded that
EMG provided a better gradient of responses to particular commercials than did self-
report. Furthermore, Bolls, A. Lang, and Potter (2001) found that EMG responses were
reliable with message valence pre-ratings using the widely validated Self-Assessment
Manikin scale (P.J. Lang et al., 1993).
In political communication, facial mimicry responses to the televised displays of
Ronald Reagan have been demonstrated in both image-only and image-plus-sound
excerpts of Reagan’s speeches, press conferences, and debates by an interdisciplinary


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