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Engaging the Surveillance System: Cognitive, Emotional, and Physiological Responses to Inappropriate Leader Displays
Unformatted Document Text:  Leader Displays 8 expectations are violated and the reaction is classified as inappropriate, an emotional expectancies violation occurs where negative emotions are generated in response to the unexpected display behavior, while the number of thoughts about the source of the violation increases. A second study, measuring emotional self-reports and trait attributions to Clinton’s expressive displays, examined display appropriateness as a situational communicative trait (Bucy, 2000). In response to compelling news events, inappropriate presidential displays (positive and intense reactions to positive news) elicited negative emotions more intensely than positive emotions and produced uniformly lower trait evaluations. Appropriate presidential displays (negative and calm reactions to negative news) elicited positive emotions more intensely than inappropriate sequences. Moreover, negative displays were evaluated as significantly more honest, credible, trustworthy, and appropriate than positive displays. On the basis of the foregoing discussion, we hypothesize that appropriate televised leader displays will elicit empathic or emotionally congruent physiological responses, while inappropriate leader displays will elicit counterempathic, or incongruent responses. Specifically, it can be predicted that: H1A: Appropriate leader displays (negative and low intensity) will elicit more corrugator (frowning) muscle activation than zygomatic (smiling) activation, in an emotionally congruent physiological response pattern. H1B: Inappropriate displays, on the other hand, will elicit more corrugator muscle activation than zygomatic activation, in an emotionally incongruent physiological response pattern.

Authors: Bucy, Erik. and Bradley, Samuel.
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Leader Displays 8
expectations are violated and the reaction is classified as inappropriate, an emotional
expectancies violation occurs where negative emotions are generated in response to the
unexpected display behavior, while the number of thoughts about the source of the
violation increases.
A second study, measuring emotional self-reports and trait attributions to
Clinton’s expressive displays, examined display appropriateness as a situational
communicative trait (Bucy, 2000). In response to compelling news events, inappropriate
presidential displays (positive and intense reactions to positive news) elicited negative
emotions more intensely than positive emotions and produced uniformly lower trait
evaluations. Appropriate presidential displays (negative and calm reactions to negative
news) elicited positive emotions more intensely than inappropriate sequences. Moreover,
negative displays were evaluated as significantly more honest, credible, trustworthy, and
appropriate than positive displays. On the basis of the foregoing discussion, we
hypothesize that appropriate televised leader displays will elicit empathic or emotionally
congruent physiological responses, while inappropriate leader displays will elicit
counterempathic, or incongruent responses. Specifically, it can be predicted that:
H1A: Appropriate leader displays (negative and low intensity) will elicit more
corrugator (frowning) muscle activation than zygomatic (smiling) activation, in an
emotionally congruent physiological response pattern.
H1B: Inappropriate displays, on the other hand, will elicit more corrugator muscle
activation than zygomatic activation, in an emotionally incongruent physiological
response pattern.


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