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Analysis of Discourses Encompassing the 'Migrant Mother' Picture
Unformatted Document Text:  6 central United States on numerous occasions between 1933 and 1935. These areas of severe wind erosion were soon known as the Dust Bowl (Gregory, 1989). A further force in the social upheavals of the 1930s was the accelerating use of farm machinery in lieu of manual labor. From 1831 to 1920, technological advances introduced into farming included the threshing machine, reaper, and steel plow. This lessened the need for animal power and increased the farmer’s productivity without diminishing the need for hand labor. The invention of the farm tractor in 1924 marked a significant step in the industrialization of agriculture. The increased use of the farm tractor rendered obsolete much of the labor of the farm hand (Perreten, 1987). The rural economic base was, then, reorganized from small family farms to more mechanized agricultural practices. Unemployment, drought, and the loss of farm tenancy hastened a massive shift in population from rural areas, mostly to California (Ganzel, 1984). The Southern Plains were hardest hit and lost 60% of their population through migration, mostly to California (Worster, 1979). In 1934 and 1935, Californians became aware of a population influx to their state. People known as ’Okies,’ who traveled in ancient family jalopies, flocked to California. As these wanderers moved along the highways they became a part of a vast and confused migratory movement. The exodus of whole families from rural to urban areas did not begin in the 1930s, but became epidemic during that decade (Ganzel, 1984). (2) FSA Photographs In 1935, President Franklin D. Roosevelt established the Resettlement Administration (RA), as a part of the New Deal, in order to alleviate rural poverty and assist people who were driven from their farmlands by severe drought and dust storms and by competition from mechanized agricultural corporations. In 1937, the RA was absorbed into the Department of Agriculture and re-titled the Farm Security Administration, FSA (O’Neal, 1976; Jeffrey, 1981; Newhall, 1982; Fleischhauer and Brannan, 1988). Conservatives branded several of RA/FSA programs socialistic as soon as they began. Virtually every policy that the agency formulated or implemented was denounced as ’communistic’, ’socialist’, ’impractical’, or a ’waste of money’ (Fleischhauer and Brannan, 1988; Guimond, 1991). Rexford G. Tugwell, head of the RA, realized that the agency would need to educate both Congress and the American people about the work of the new agency, They wreaked havoc on people, crops, and livestock (Worster, 1979).

Authors: Choi, Hyunju.
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central United States on numerous occasions between 1933 and 1935. These areas of
severe wind erosion were soon known as the Dust Bowl (Gregory, 1989).
A further force in the social upheavals of the 1930s was the accelerating use of
farm machinery in lieu of manual labor. From 1831 to 1920, technological advances
introduced into farming included the threshing machine, reaper, and steel plow. This
lessened the need for animal power and increased the farmer’s productivity without
diminishing the need for hand labor. The invention of the farm tractor in 1924 marked a
significant step in the industrialization of agriculture. The increased use of the farm tractor
rendered obsolete much of the labor of the farm hand (Perreten, 1987). The rural economic
base was, then, reorganized from small family farms to more mechanized agricultural
practices.
Unemployment, drought, and the loss of farm tenancy
hastened a massive shift in
population from rural areas, mostly to California (Ganzel, 1984). The Southern Plains were
hardest hit and lost 60% of their population through migration, mostly to California
(Worster, 1979). In 1934 and 1935, Californians became aware of a population influx to
their state. People known as ’Okies,’ who traveled in ancient family jalopies, flocked to
California. As these wanderers moved along the highways they became a part of a vast and
confused migratory movement. The exodus of whole families from rural to urban areas did
not begin in the 1930s, but became epidemic during that decade (Ganzel, 1984).
(2) FSA Photographs
In 1935, President Franklin D. Roosevelt established the Resettlement
Administration (RA), as a part of the New Deal, in order to alleviate rural poverty and
assist people who were driven from their farmlands by severe drought and dust storms and
by competition from mechanized agricultural corporations. In 1937, the RA was absorbed
into the Department of Agriculture and re-titled the Farm Security Administration, FSA
(O’Neal, 1976; Jeffrey, 1981; Newhall, 1982; Fleischhauer and Brannan, 1988).
Conservatives branded several of RA/FSA programs socialistic as soon as they
began. Virtually every policy that the agency formulated or implemented was denounced
as ’communistic’, ’socialist’, ’impractical’, or a ’waste of money’ (Fleischhauer and Brannan,
1988; Guimond, 1991).
Rexford G. Tugwell, head of the RA, realized that the agency would need to
educate both Congress and the American people about the work of the new agency,
They wreaked havoc on people, crops, and livestock (Worster, 1979).


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