All Academic, Inc. Research Logo

Info/CitationFAQResearchAll Academic Inc.
Document

A field test of equivocation theory: Apologies by Canadian churches to indigenous people
Unformatted Document Text:  11 been an agent, the subject simply existed in a given state: ... we were closed to the value of your spirituality. (United 1986) ... we were part of a system ... (Anglican 1993) In our cultural arrogance, we have been blind to the ways ... (Presbyterian 1994) Second, even in active voice, the choice of terms for the subject of the sentence can distance or abstract agency away from the church itself: . .. the pain and suffering that our church’s involvement in the Indian Residential School system has caused. (United 1998) In this example, “involvement” is the grammatical subject, with the church itself somewhat distanced in the background. Or, ... a system which took you and your children from home and family. (Anglican 1993) The abstracted “system” is the subject and agent in this apology, so the church and its personnel are not directly responsible. Third, the agent can be entirely missing: In these schools, children were deprived of their traditional ways ... (Presbyterian 1994) This example and the following illustrate that, in passive voice, there is no grammatical requirement to include an agent at all: ... there was opportunity for sexual abuse, and some were so abused. (Presbyterian 1994) ... those individuals who were physically, sexually and mental abused as students of the Indian Residential Schools. (United 1998) ... that in our schools so many were abused physically, sexually, culturally, and emotionally. (Anglican 1993)

Authors: Bavelas, Janet.
first   previous   Page 11 of 26   next   last



background image
11
been an agent, the subject simply existed in a given state:
... we were closed to the value of your spirituality. (United 1986)
... we were part of a system ... (Anglican 1993)
In our cultural arrogance, we have been blind to the ways ... (Presbyterian 1994)
Second, even in active voice, the choice of terms for the subject of the sentence
can distance or abstract agency away from the church itself:
.
.. the pain and suffering that our church’s involvement in the Indian Residential School
system has caused. (United 1998)
In this example, “involvement” is the grammatical subject, with the church itself
somewhat distanced in the background. Or,
... a system which took you and your children from home and family. (Anglican 1993)
The abstracted “system” is the subject and agent in this apology, so the church and its
personnel are not directly responsible.
Third, the agent can be entirely missing:
In these schools, children were deprived of their traditional ways ...
(Presbyterian 1994)
This example and the following illustrate that, in passive voice, there is no grammatical
requirement to include an agent at all:
... there was opportunity for sexual abuse, and some were so abused. (Presbyterian
1994)
... those individuals who were physically, sexually and mental abused as students of the
Indian Residential Schools. (United 1998)
... that in our schools so many were abused physically, sexually, culturally, and
emotionally. (Anglican 1993)


Convention
All Academic Convention makes running your annual conference simple and cost effective. It is your online solution for abstract management, peer review, and scheduling for your annual meeting or convention.
Submission - Custom fields, multiple submission types, tracks, audio visual, multiple upload formats, automatic conversion to pdf.
Review - Peer Review, Bulk reviewer assignment, bulk emails, ranking, z-score statistics, and multiple worksheets!
Reports - Many standard and custom reports generated while you wait. Print programs with participant indexes, event grids, and more!
Scheduling - Flexible and convenient grid scheduling within rooms and buildings. Conflict checking and advanced filtering.
Communication - Bulk email tools to help your administrators send reminders and responses. Use form letters, a message center, and much more!
Management - Search tools, duplicate people management, editing tools, submission transfers, many tools to manage a variety of conference management headaches!
Click here for more information.

first   previous   Page 11 of 26   next   last

©2012 All Academic, Inc.