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A field test of equivocation theory: Apologies by Canadian churches to indigenous people
Unformatted Document Text:  16 church or its representatives as agent, the third and fourth parts were redundant with the second and third, as in this example: TEXT IN CLAUSES CLAUSE GRAMMAR OFFENSE DESCRIPTION Subject Verb Agent Action that we were part “we” linking “we” linking of a system which took you and your [“system”] active “system” active and your children from home and family. (Anglican 1993) However, the last two columns were necessary because they were not always redundant with the second and third. Sometimes the offense did not appear in the verb of the clause, most commonly when it became a noun. In the first clause of the following example, the offense description in the last two columns differs from the clause structure in the second and third columns: TEXT IN CLAUSES CLAUSE GRAMMAR OFFENSE DESCRIPTION Subject Verb Agent Action that the negative experiences “negative passive no agent noun in the Residential Schools experiences” cannot be considered in isolation from the root causes of the indignities and injustices [that were] suffered by [“indignities passive aboriginal peoples in our and country. (Catholic 1991) injustices”] In the first clause, the grammatical verb phrase (“cannot be considered”) does not describe an offense. The actions that constituted the offense appear as a noun (“negative experiences”) with no agent; indeed, the focus is on the victims’ experiences

Authors: Bavelas, Janet.
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16
church or its representatives as agent, the third and fourth parts were redundant with
the second and third, as in this example:
TEXT IN CLAUSES
CLAUSE GRAMMAR
OFFENSE DESCRIPTION
Subject Verb
Agent
Action
that we were part
“we”
linking
“we”
linking
of a system

which took you and your
[“system”]
active
“system”
active
and
your
children
from
home
and family. (Anglican
1993)

However, the last two columns were necessary because they were not always
redundant with the second and third. Sometimes the offense did not appear in the verb
of the clause, most commonly when it became a noun. In the first clause of the
following example, the offense description in the last two columns differs from the
clause structure in the second and third columns:
TEXT IN CLAUSES
CLAUSE GRAMMAR
OFFENSE DESCRIPTION
Subject Verb
Agent
Action
that the negative experiences “negative passive
no
agent
noun
in the Residential Schools experiences”
cannot be considered in
isolation from the root causes
of the indignities and injustices

[that were] suffered by
[“indignities passive
aboriginal peoples in our
and
country. (Catholic 1991)
injustices”]

In the first clause, the grammatical verb phrase (“cannot be considered”) does not
describe an offense. The actions that constituted the offense appear as a noun
(“negative experiences”) with no agent; indeed, the focus is on the victims’ experiences


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