All Academic, Inc. Research Logo

Info/CitationFAQResearchAll Academic Inc.
Document

A field test of equivocation theory: Apologies by Canadian churches to indigenous people
Unformatted Document Text:  18 clause, “the churches” were the agent, after “civil governments.” Two of the offences appeared in noun form, one in active voice (with “mentality” or “imperialism” as the possible agents), and one in passive voice with the governments and churches as agents. The 1991 apology by the Catholic National Meeting never used “we” or the church as agent. Two clauses had no agent and no verb; the offences appeared as nouns (“pain, suffering, and alienation” and “negative experiences”). The third clause was in active voice, with the victims as the subject (“... that so many experienced”). The offences did refer to the residential schools, but only generally. Anglican (1993)1993 was clearly about the residential school system, describing several specific offences (taking children from their homes, taking away their language and identity, and several kinds of abuse). None of the four offense descriptions put the church and active voice in the same clause: “we” appeared with a linking verb, and “a system” was the subject and agent for the active voice. A third clause combined active voice plus infinitive in the pattern of mitigating verb in active voice (“tried to remake you”). The fourth, which was about physical, sexual, cultural, and emotional abuse, was in passive voice without agent. The lengthy Presbyterian 1994 apology contained 29 offense descriptions covering a wide variety of acts. Six of the clauses placed the church as agent in active voice; these included an equally wide variety of offences, ranging from “co-operated in this policy” and “misrepresented Jesus Christ” to “used disciplinary practices” and “did not . . . hear their cries for justice.” The two predominant forms in this apology were

Authors: Bavelas, Janet.
first   previous   Page 18 of 26   next   last



background image
18
clause, “the churches” were the agent, after “civil governments.” Two of the offences
appeared in noun form, one in active voice (with “mentality” or “imperialism” as the
possible agents), and one in passive voice with the governments and churches as
agents.
The 1991 apology by the Catholic National Meeting never used “we” or the
church as agent. Two clauses had no agent and no verb; the offences appeared as
nouns (“pain, suffering, and alienation” and “negative experiences”). The third clause
was in active voice, with the victims as the subject (“... that so many experienced”). The
offences did refer to the residential schools, but only generally.
Anglican (1993)1993 was clearly about the residential school system, describing
several specific offences (taking children from their homes, taking away their language
and identity, and several kinds of abuse). None of the four offense descriptions put the
church and active voice in the same clause: “we” appeared with a linking verb, and “a
system” was the subject and agent for the active voice. A third clause combined active
voice plus infinitive in the pattern of mitigating verb in active voice (“tried to remake
you”). The fourth, which was about physical, sexual, cultural, and emotional abuse, was
in passive voice without agent.
The lengthy Presbyterian 1994 apology contained 29 offense descriptions
covering a wide variety of acts. Six of the clauses placed the church as agent in active
voice; these included an equally wide variety of offences, ranging from “co-operated in
this policy” and “misrepresented Jesus Christ” to “used disciplinary practices” and “did
not . . . hear their cries for justice.” The two predominant forms in this apology were


Convention
Submission, Review, and Scheduling! All Academic Convention can help with all of your abstract management needs and many more. Contact us today for a quote!
Submission - Custom fields, multiple submission types, tracks, audio visual, multiple upload formats, automatic conversion to pdf.
Review - Peer Review, Bulk reviewer assignment, bulk emails, ranking, z-score statistics, and multiple worksheets!
Reports - Many standard and custom reports generated while you wait. Print programs with participant indexes, event grids, and more!
Scheduling - Flexible and convenient grid scheduling within rooms and buildings. Conflict checking and advanced filtering.
Communication - Bulk email tools to help your administrators send reminders and responses. Use form letters, a message center, and much more!
Management - Search tools, duplicate people management, editing tools, submission transfers, many tools to manage a variety of conference management headaches!
Click here for more information.

first   previous   Page 18 of 26   next   last

©2012 All Academic, Inc.