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Buddhist Public Relations Model for Thai Community Development: Theoretical and Practical Implications
Unformatted Document Text:  Buddhist Public Relations - ICA-15-11634 4 development. I finally present the general contributions of the model to the theoretical and practical knowledge of cultural-based public relations. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK During the past decades, the world has gone through dramatic changes. It is found that the modernization and dependency paradigms fall short in understanding “holistic integration” and “public relationships.” These paradigms brought forward uneven development in which the upper-middle class and “new rich” have benefited materially from decades of modernism. The prevailing mood in modernization and dependency paradigms was to generate the individualist tradition, oppression, environmental degradation, spiritual and moral crisis, and social disintegration (Buddhadasa, 1989; Servaes, 1996). To this extent, the limitation lies in society’s loss of civic virtue, humility, social values, moral sense, and spiritual practice. Scholars from the multiplicity paradigm argue that world and social reality is so complex that it cannot be analyzed from a theory and method of grand narratives. Cultural factors become of prime importance in determining public and social relationships. Values and interests are intrinsic features of social interaction that are especially difficult to recognize from the perspective of dominant frameworks or grand narratives. The door is now open to alternatives, to qualitative approaches that are more relevant to common people and grassroots communities (Arnst, 996). Qualitative Approach and Public Relationship The qualitative scholars from the critical and postmodern camp have emerged from the criticism of the modernization and dependency paradigms. According to Holtzhausen (2000), the public relations discourse is political by its own nature. The term “political” in this sense refers to all forms of action linked to change or resistance to change (Williams, 1998). In the dominant discourse, public relations has

Authors: Hanpongpandh, Peeraya.
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Buddhist Public Relations - ICA-15-11634
4
development. I finally present the general contributions of the model to the
theoretical and practical knowledge of cultural-based public relations.
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
During the past decades, the world has gone through dramatic changes. It is
found that the modernization and dependency paradigms fall short in understanding
“holistic integration” and “public relationships.” These paradigms brought forward
uneven development in which the upper-middle class and “new rich” have benefited
materially from decades of modernism. The prevailing mood in modernization and
dependency paradigms was to generate the individualist tradition, oppression,
environmental degradation, spiritual and moral crisis, and social disintegration
(Buddhadasa, 1989; Servaes, 1996). To this extent, the limitation lies in society’s loss
of civic virtue, humility, social values, moral sense, and spiritual practice.
Scholars from the multiplicity paradigm argue that world and social reality is
so complex that it cannot be analyzed from a theory and method of grand narratives.
Cultural factors become of prime importance in determining public and social
relationships. Values and interests are intrinsic features of social interaction that are
especially difficult to recognize from the perspective of dominant frameworks or
grand narratives. The door is now open to alternatives, to qualitative approaches that
are more relevant to common people and grassroots communities (Arnst, 996).
Qualitative Approach and Public Relationship
The qualitative scholars from the critical and postmodern camp have emerged
from the criticism of the modernization and dependency paradigms. According to
Holtzhausen (2000), the public relations discourse is political by its own nature. The
term “political” in this sense refers to all forms of action linked to change or
resistance to change (Williams, 1998). In the dominant discourse, public relations has


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