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Auditory Interfaces as a Sign System: An Application of Peircean Semiotics to Human-Computer Interaction
Unformatted Document Text:  \ sentences, phrases, or word segments. Later, they are played back by certain computer programs. New sentences can be constructed by arranging words in a proper order. Synthesis-by-rule does not use recorded human voices. The synthesis of words and sentences are controlled by rules of phonemics and the contexts of sentences and phrases. Combined with a database, this method may produce a wider range of responses than speech constructed by concatenation. Synthesis-by-rule also allows various levels of pitch and tone. Speech produced by this technology may still sound somewhat “synthetic” and “machine- like.” Synthesis-by-rule, however, is useful and strong where larger vocabularies are necessary (Preece, 1994). In this study, we constructed the verbal message auditory interface with a human voice recording. Earcons Earcons are the short, distinctive musical motifs that have well-defined rules of construction (Papp III & Blattner, 1996). As such, earcons are a method of conveying information through sounds of “musical vocabularies.” Blattner, Sumikawa and Greenberg (1991) define earcons as “non-verbal audio messages that are used in a computer user interface to provide information to users about computer objects, operations and interactions.” An earcon uses a musical approach (Brewster, 1994), and as such, there is no intuitive or intrinsic link between a sound and what is represented; the link is established by the computer interface designer and it must be learned by the computer user. Alarms with different meanings, for example, can be created by changing their rhythms, melodies, and timbres to create short, distinctive tunes (Gaver, 1997).

Authors: Nam, Yoon Jae.
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sentences, phrases, or word segments. Later, they are played back by certain computer
programs. New sentences can be constructed by arranging words in a proper order.
Synthesis-by-rule does not use recorded human voices. The synthesis of words and
sentences are controlled by rules of phonemics and the contexts of sentences and phrases.
Combined with a database, this method may produce a wider range of responses than speech
constructed by concatenation. Synthesis-by-rule also allows various levels of pitch and tone.
Speech produced by this technology may still sound somewhat “synthetic” and “machine-
like.” Synthesis-by-rule, however, is useful and strong where larger vocabularies are necessary
(Preece, 1994). In this study, we constructed the verbal message auditory interface with a
human voice recording.
Earcons
Earcons are the short, distinctive musical motifs that have well-defined rules of construction
(Papp III & Blattner, 1996). As such, earcons are a method of conveying information through
sounds of “musical vocabularies.” Blattner, Sumikawa and Greenberg (1991) define earcons as
“non-verbal audio messages that are used in a computer user interface to provide information
to users about computer objects, operations and interactions.” An earcon uses a musical
approach (Brewster, 1994), and as such, there is no intuitive or intrinsic link between a sound
and what is represented; the link is established by the computer interface designer and it must
be learned by the computer user. Alarms with different meanings, for example, can be created
by changing their rhythms, melodies, and timbres to create short, distinctive tunes (Gaver,
1997).


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