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A Working Theory of Cross-National Conflict Shifting as an International Public Relations Dynamic
Unformatted Document Text:  Cross-National Conflict Shifting 15 What are the characteristics of the country or region where the conflict starts that may influence the magnitude of the conflict? According to the cases presented in this paper, developing nations or regions and emergent economies are the locations where most cross-national conflicts start, such as the developing nations of Nigeria in ChevronTexaco, Peru in Bayer, Latin America in Starbucks as well as emergent economies such as Brazil in Ethan Allen and India in McDonald’s and Nalli. Similarly, the degree or level of attractiveness of the host country where the situation developed would call the attention of the international community. Particular Brazil stands up in this group. The largest South American country with the 9 th world economy is surprising the world with well-orchestrated campaigns against tobacco consumption and the high cost of AIDS drugs. “Brazil instituted one of the world’s most comprehensive bans on cigarette advertising, gradually forbidding it everywhere except the counters where cigarettes are sold—even on Brazilian-based Web sites” (Karp, 2002, p. A1). Any transnational organization that faces a conflict in Brazil will be likely to receive a great deal of attention due to the country’s prominence on the world scene, its role as a bellwether for Latin America, the high level of activism found among its population and a strong inclination toward government intervention in national economic affairs. The type of market and level of consumer’s sophistication of the home market could influence the magnitude of the conflict at the home country that calls the attention of global NGOs and media. This can be said also about Brazil where a Code of Defense of the Consumer was enacted in 1991. According to Sorj (2000), the advances in consumers’ rights have also become a channel of expression for the defense of the rights of citizens. Another aspect of the host country that may influence the magnitude and consequences of a conflict is the degree of intervention, interest or involvement of the host government; that is, in

Authors: Molleda, Juan. and Quinn, Candace.
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Cross-National Conflict Shifting
15
What are the characteristics of the country or region where the conflict starts that may influence
the magnitude of the conflict?
According to the cases presented in this paper, developing nations or regions and
emergent economies are the locations where most cross-national conflicts start, such as the
developing nations of Nigeria in ChevronTexaco, Peru in Bayer, Latin America in Starbucks as
well as emergent economies such as Brazil in Ethan Allen and India in McDonald’s and Nalli.
Similarly, the degree or level of attractiveness of the host country where the situation developed
would call the attention of the international community. Particular Brazil stands up in this group.
The largest South American country with the 9
th
world economy is surprising the world with
well-orchestrated campaigns against tobacco consumption and the high cost of AIDS drugs.
“Brazil instituted one of the world’s most comprehensive bans on cigarette advertising, gradually
forbidding it everywhere except the counters where cigarettes are sold—even on Brazilian-based
Web sites” (Karp, 2002, p. A1). Any transnational organization that faces a conflict in Brazil will
be likely to receive a great deal of attention due to the country’s prominence on the world scene,
its role as a bellwether for Latin America, the high level of activism found among its population
and a strong inclination toward government intervention in national economic affairs.
The type of market and level of consumer’s sophistication of the home market could
influence the magnitude of the conflict at the home country that calls the attention of global
NGOs and media. This can be said also about Brazil where a Code of Defense of the Consumer
was enacted in 1991. According to Sorj (2000), the advances in consumers’ rights have also
become a channel of expression for the defense of the rights of citizens.
Another aspect of the host country that may influence the magnitude and consequences of
a conflict is the degree of intervention, interest or involvement of the host government; that is, in


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