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Advice to Practitioners: A Review of the Popular Press Literature on Planned Change Communication
Unformatted Document Text:  Advice to Practitioners - 13 This is a more psychological view of resistance and Bridges sums this up by saying “Change efforts fail because people aren’t given the opportunity to say goodbye to the old way of doing things” (p. 35). Strategies of Change A strategy, for our purpose, is a general pattern or approach to a problem or task. Such strategies are developed and planned somewhat ahead of implementation and reflect a philosophy of effective action. When examining these books we looked for explicit and implicit evidence of general suggested strategies to change implementation. Our review revealed nine themes related to general implementation strategies for change (Table 5 lists the themes and the books representing them). Emergent vs. Planned Change The literature is rife with both direct and indirect references to either the planned and/or emergent nature of change. Although most seem to qualify change as a global, top-down process, driven and controlled by the upper echelons of the organization, there are others who view change as a largely emergent process that develops out of the dynamics of more localized environments. For example, Mourier and Smith (2001) claim that failed change is often due to a lack of well-articulated goals and planning. Echoing these sentiments, Pritchett and Pound (1994) argue that careful planning and organizing is essential to the change process. On the other hand, these authors also suggest that managers need to decide how structured the change will be. Leaders need to be aware and take opportunity of changes that come about as a result of the major change, suggesting that even with some measure of control, there is always the potential for change to emerge. Moreover, Senge and colleagues (1999) make the distinction between change initiatives driven by authority and those driven by learning. While initiatives driven by authority suggest a planned, top-down approach, initiatives established through learning are more emerging and allow for the individual to design, initiate and implement on their own. Similarly, Ackerman, Anderson and Anderson (2001), distinguish between a controlling style of change management (i.e., a traditional control and command model), an organizing style (i.e., one that is emergent, unstructured and used to facilitate transformational

Authors: Lewis, Laurie., Stephens, Keri., Schmisseur, Amy. and Weir, Kathleen.
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Advice to Practitioners - 13
This is a more psychological view of resistance and Bridges sums this up by saying “Change efforts fail
because people aren’t given the opportunity to say goodbye to the old way of doing things” (p. 35).
Strategies of Change
A strategy, for our purpose, is a general pattern or approach to a problem or task. Such strategies
are developed and planned somewhat ahead of implementation and reflect a philosophy of effective
action. When examining these books we looked for explicit and implicit evidence of general suggested
strategies to change implementation. Our review revealed nine themes related to general implementation
strategies for change (Table 5 lists the themes and the books representing them).
Emergent vs. Planned Change
The literature is rife with both direct and indirect references to either the planned and/or emergent
nature of change. Although most seem to qualify change as a global, top-down process, driven and
controlled by the upper echelons of the organization, there are others who view change as a largely
emergent process that develops out of the dynamics of more localized environments. For example,
Mourier and Smith (2001) claim that failed change is often due to a lack of well-articulated goals and
planning. Echoing these sentiments, Pritchett and Pound (1994) argue that careful planning and
organizing is essential to the change process. On the other hand, these authors also suggest that managers
need to decide how structured the change will be. Leaders need to be aware and take opportunity of
changes that come about as a result of the major change, suggesting that even with some measure of
control, there is always the potential for change to emerge.
Moreover, Senge and colleagues (1999) make the distinction between change initiatives driven by
authority and those driven by learning. While initiatives driven by authority suggest a planned, top-down
approach, initiatives established through learning are more emerging and allow for the individual to
design, initiate and implement on their own. Similarly, Ackerman, Anderson and Anderson (2001),
distinguish between a controlling style of change management (i.e., a traditional control and command
model), an organizing style (i.e., one that is emergent, unstructured and used to facilitate transformational


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