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Exploring the Boundaries of Heroes, Celebrities and Role Models after 9/11: Lessons from Shanksville
Unformatted Document Text:  Lessons from Shanksville p. 14 ( χ 2 (1, N = 437) = 58.4, p < .001). The fifth hypothesis predicted that respondents who considered those on board UA Flight 93 to be heroes would more likely report that their view of heroes had changed. Results do not support this hypothesis. Respondents who considered those on board UA Flight 93 to be heroes were not more likely to change their beliefs about heroes (t = 0.46, p = .65), or change their thinking that celebrities can be heroes (t = 1.23, p = .22) and important role models (t = -.83, p = .41). The sixth hypothesis, which predicted identification with those on board UA Flight 93 would be positively associated with the belief that they were heroes, was supported by the research results (t – 3.69, p = .001). On a 5 to 25 range of the identification scale, the mean of those who considered them to be heroes was 19.6, compared to the mean identification value of 14.1 for those who did not view them as heroes. Hypothesis 7 predicted that identification with those on board UA Flight 93 would be positively associated with (a) changing one’s view of heroes, and (b) no longer viewing celebrities as heroes. Results support this hypothesis. Those who identified with the passengers and crew (excluding the terrorists) were more likely to change their view of heroes (R 2 = .19, p < .001) and were more likely to no longer think of celebrities as heroes (R 2 = .11, p < .001). The last hypothesis predicted that identification with those on board UA Flight 93 would be positively associated with (a) visiting the Shanksville memorial site to be inspired, and (b) visiting the Shanksville memorial site to bring closure to the tragedy. This hypothesis also was supported by the research results. Those who regarded the

Authors: Brown, William. and Fraser, Benson.
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background image
Lessons from Shanksville
p. 14
(
χ
2
(1, N = 437) = 58.4, p < .001).
The fifth hypothesis predicted that respondents who considered those on board
UA Flight 93 to be heroes would more likely report that their view of heroes had
changed. Results do not support this hypothesis. Respondents who considered those on
board UA Flight 93 to be heroes were not more likely to change their beliefs about heroes
(t = 0.46, p = .65), or change their thinking that celebrities can be heroes (t = 1.23, p =
.22) and important role models (t = -.83, p = .41).
The sixth hypothesis, which predicted identification with those on board UA
Flight 93 would be positively associated with the belief that they were heroes, was
supported by the research results (t – 3.69, p = .001). On a 5 to 25 range of the
identification scale, the mean of those who considered them to be heroes was 19.6,
compared to the mean identification value of 14.1 for those who did not view them as
heroes.
Hypothesis 7 predicted that identification with those on board UA Flight 93
would be positively associated with (a) changing one’s view of heroes, and (b) no longer
viewing celebrities as heroes. Results support this hypothesis. Those who identified with
the passengers and crew (excluding the terrorists) were more likely to change their view
of heroes (R
2
= .19, p < .001) and were more likely to no longer think of celebrities as
heroes (R
2
= .11, p < .001).
The last hypothesis predicted that identification with those on board UA Flight 93
would be positively associated with (a) visiting the Shanksville memorial site to be
inspired, and (b) visiting the Shanksville memorial site to bring closure to the tragedy.
This hypothesis also was supported by the research results. Those who regarded the


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