All Academic, Inc. Research Logo

Info/CitationFAQResearchAll Academic Inc.
Document

Access to the Media Versus Access to Audiences: The Distinction and its Implications for Media Regulation and Policy
Unformatted Document Text:  14 that 30 years ago we were still very much in an era of true “mass” media, in which there were far fewer content options, each of which could be better guaranteed large, heterogeneous audiences than they can today. Certainly, gaining access to the media is central to the process of gaining access to audiences; however, there are other factors at work that ultimately affect the level of access to audiences that a mediated communicator enjoys. Within mediated contexts, the level of access to an audience that a speaker possesses is a matter of degree, with the degree of access a function of a variety of factors, including the technological characteristics of the medium, the system of content distribution, and audience awareness and availability. Thus, for instance, a cable network placed at channel 280 on a cable system does not have the same degree of access to audiences as a network placed at channel 12, due not only to the fact that many audience members likely don’t subscribe to a channel package that includes all upper-tier channels, but also due to the fact that demonstrated patterns of the typical individual’s media consumption indicate that channels located further up the dial are less likely to be accessed by the typical viewer. 38 Similarly, a web site does not have the same level of access to the typical media consumer in a particular market as a broadcast network, due not only to the lower levels of Internet penetration relative to television penetration, but also due to factors such as the lower level of audience awareness that the web site is likely to have in a media environment that is much more fragmented than what exists in the television context. Similarly, when we focus solely on the Web, individual web sites are not equivalent in their levels of access to audiences due to factors such as variations in placement by search engine listings and linkages and cross-promotional arrangements with other web sites. 39 38 See generally James G. Webster and Patricia F. Phalen, T HE M ASS A UDIENCE : R EDISCOVERING THE D OMINANT M ODEL (1997). 39 Andrew Chin, Making the World Wide Web Safe for Democracy: A Medium-Specific First Amendment Analysis. 19 H ASTINGS C OMMUNICATIONS AND E NTERTAINMENT L.J. 309 (1997).

Authors: Napoli, Philip.
first   previous   Page 14 of 24   next   last



background image
14
that 30 years ago we were still very much in an era of true “mass” media, in which there were far fewer
content options, each of which could be better guaranteed large, heterogeneous audiences than they can
today.
Certainly, gaining access to the media is central to the process of gaining access to audiences;
however, there are other factors at work that ultimately affect the level of access to audiences that a
mediated communicator enjoys. Within mediated contexts, the level of access to an audience that a
speaker possesses is a matter of degree, with the degree of access a function of a variety of factors,
including the technological characteristics of the medium, the system of content distribution, and
audience awareness and availability. Thus, for instance, a cable network placed at channel 280 on a cable
system does not have the same degree of access to audiences as a network placed at channel 12, due not
only to the fact that many audience members likely don’t subscribe to a channel package that includes all
upper-tier channels, but also due to the fact that demonstrated patterns of the typical individual’s media
consumption indicate that channels located further up the dial are less likely to be accessed by the typical
viewer.
38
Similarly, a web site does not have the same level of access to the typical media consumer in a
particular market as a broadcast network, due not only to the lower levels of Internet penetration relative
to television penetration, but also due to factors such as the lower level of audience awareness that the
web site is likely to have in a media environment that is much more fragmented than what exists in the
television context. Similarly, when we focus solely on the Web, individual web sites are not equivalent in
their levels of access to audiences due to factors such as variations in placement by search engine listings
and linkages and cross-promotional arrangements with other web sites.
39
38
See generally James G. Webster and Patricia F. Phalen, T
HE
M
ASS
A
UDIENCE
: R
EDISCOVERING THE
D
OMINANT
M
ODEL
(1997).
39
Andrew Chin, Making the World Wide Web Safe for Democracy: A Medium-Specific First Amendment Analysis.
19 H
ASTINGS
C
OMMUNICATIONS AND
E
NTERTAINMENT
L.J. 309 (1997).


Convention
Need a solution for abstract management? All Academic can help! Contact us today to find out how our system can help your annual meeting.
Submission - Custom fields, multiple submission types, tracks, audio visual, multiple upload formats, automatic conversion to pdf.
Review - Peer Review, Bulk reviewer assignment, bulk emails, ranking, z-score statistics, and multiple worksheets!
Reports - Many standard and custom reports generated while you wait. Print programs with participant indexes, event grids, and more!
Scheduling - Flexible and convenient grid scheduling within rooms and buildings. Conflict checking and advanced filtering.
Communication - Bulk email tools to help your administrators send reminders and responses. Use form letters, a message center, and much more!
Management - Search tools, duplicate people management, editing tools, submission transfers, many tools to manage a variety of conference management headaches!
Click here for more information.

first   previous   Page 14 of 24   next   last

©2012 All Academic, Inc.