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Assessing the Reliability and Validity of the Generalized Ethnocentrism Scale
Unformatted Document Text:  Assessing Reliability 3 Neuliep, Chaudoir, and McCroskey (2001) found that Japanese students scored significantly higher in ethnocentrism than American students. McCroskey and Neuliep (in press) have argued that newborns are innately egocentric. Early in life, infants develop an awareness of others around them. By the age of two or three children are capable of engaging in social perspective-taking of the people most central to them (e.g., a child’s biological or adopted family). McCroskey and Neuliep (in press) argue that, at this stage of human development, children are familialcentric. As the socialization process continues, children develop the realization that their families coexist with other families within a neighborhood of many families. Children observe that multiple neighborhoods make up larger communities that lead to cities, and eventually, culture. According to McCroskey and Neuliep, by the time children realize that they are a part of some much larger whole, they are enculturated and ethnocentric. This process is involuntary and largely unconscious. Neuliep and McCroskey (1997) point out that ethnocentrism is essentially descriptive; not necessarily pejorative. In fact, ethnocentrism may serve a very valuable function when one’s central group (e.g., country, ethnic, religious, regional, etc.) is under actual or the threat of attack. Ethnocentrism forms the basis for patriotism, loyalty, and the willingness to sacrifice for one’s central group. To be sure, Sharma, Shimp, and Shin (1995) argue that ethnocentrism fosters ingroup solidarity, conformity, cooperation, loyalty, and effectiveness. Ethnocentrism and Intercultural Communication Neuliep et al. (2001) have pointed out that ethnocentrism influences intercultural communication. According to Neuliep et al. (2001), whenever people initiate interaction with

Authors: Neuliep, James W..
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Assessing Reliability
3
Neuliep, Chaudoir, and McCroskey (2001) found that Japanese students scored significantly
higher in ethnocentrism than American students.
McCroskey and Neuliep (in press) have argued that newborns are innately egocentric.
Early in life, infants develop an awareness of others around them. By the age of two or three
children are capable of engaging in social perspective-taking of the people most central to them
(e.g., a child’s biological or adopted family). McCroskey and Neuliep (in press) argue that, at this
stage of human development, children are familialcentric. As the socialization process
continues, children develop the realization that their families coexist with other families within a
neighborhood of many families. Children observe that multiple neighborhoods make up larger
communities that lead to cities, and eventually, culture. According to McCroskey and Neuliep,
by the time children realize that they are a part of some much larger whole, they are enculturated
and ethnocentric. This process is involuntary and largely unconscious.
Neuliep and McCroskey (1997) point out that ethnocentrism is essentially descriptive; not
necessarily pejorative. In fact, ethnocentrism may serve a very valuable function when one’s
central group (e.g., country, ethnic, religious, regional, etc.) is under actual or the threat of attack.
Ethnocentrism forms the basis for patriotism, loyalty, and the willingness to sacrifice for one’s
central group. To be sure, Sharma, Shimp, and Shin (1995) argue that ethnocentrism fosters
ingroup solidarity, conformity, cooperation, loyalty, and effectiveness.
Ethnocentrism and Intercultural Communication
Neuliep et al. (2001) have pointed out that ethnocentrism influences intercultural
communication. According to Neuliep et al. (2001), whenever people initiate interaction with


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