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Assessing the Reliability and Validity of the Generalized Ethnocentrism Scale
Unformatted Document Text:  Assessing Reliability 4 others they bring with them a plethora of values, emotional dispositions, and behaviors that were conditioned by culture. Neuliep (2003) has argued that culture teaches people how to think, instructs people how to feel, and conditions people how to act; especially how to inter-act with others. Neuliep (2003) also maintains that because intercultural communication is a symbolic activity where the ideas of one person from one culture are encoded into a verbal or nonverbal code then transmitted through a channel to another person from a different culture who must decode it, interpret it, and respond to it, the process is replete with cultural noise. The codes people use to compose messages are necessarily representations of their culture. To be sure, Gudykunst (1997) maintains that during intercultural interaction culture acts as a filter through which verbal and nonverbal messages must pass. Thus, intercultural message exchanges are necessarily, to a greater or lessor degree, charged with ethnocentrism. Guan (1995) asserts that intercultural interactants use their own cultural standards to evaluate and communicate with others during what he calls "self-centered dialogue." The language of a particular culture may also contribute to one’s ethnocentrism. Rogers and Steinfatt (1999) maintain that most languages are inherently ethnocentric. Contemporary linguists contend that the language of a particular culture reflects that culture’s experience and influences how members of the culture shape and organize their cognitions. The general thrust of the literature suggests that ethnocentrism is a barrier to effective and competent intercultural communication. For example, Gudykunst (1998) points to the work of Lukens (1978) who has argued that ethnocentrism leads to the communicative distance of indifference, avoidance, and disparagement between interactants. According to Gudykunst

Authors: Neuliep, James W..
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Assessing Reliability
4
others they bring with them a plethora of values, emotional dispositions, and behaviors that were
conditioned by culture. Neuliep (2003) has argued that culture teaches people how to think,
instructs people how to feel, and conditions people how to act; especially how to inter-act with
others. Neuliep (2003) also maintains that because intercultural communication is a symbolic
activity where the ideas of one person from one culture are encoded into a verbal or nonverbal
code then transmitted through a channel to another person from a different culture who must
decode it, interpret it, and respond to it, the process is replete with cultural noise. The codes
people use to compose messages are necessarily representations of their culture. To be sure,
Gudykunst (1997) maintains that during intercultural interaction culture acts as a filter through
which verbal and nonverbal messages must pass. Thus, intercultural message exchanges are
necessarily, to a greater or lessor degree, charged with ethnocentrism. Guan (1995) asserts that
intercultural interactants use their own cultural standards to evaluate and communicate with
others during what he calls "self-centered dialogue." The language of a particular culture may
also contribute to one’s ethnocentrism. Rogers and Steinfatt (1999) maintain that most languages
are inherently ethnocentric. Contemporary linguists contend that the language of a particular
culture reflects that culture’s experience and influences how members of the culture shape and
organize their cognitions.
The general thrust of the literature suggests that ethnocentrism is a barrier to effective and
competent intercultural communication. For example, Gudykunst (1998) points to the work of
Lukens (1978) who has argued that ethnocentrism leads to the communicative distance of
indifference, avoidance, and disparagement between interactants. According to Gudykunst


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