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Assessing the Reliability and Validity of the Generalized Ethnocentrism Scale
Unformatted Document Text:  Assessing Reliability 5 (1998) the communicative distance of indifference is heard in such expressions as "Don’t be such a Jew," or "My kids are acting like a bunch of wild Indians," or "Let’s do this like a Chinese menu." The communicative distance of avoidance occurs when interactants intentionally circumvent communication with persons from other cultures. Finally, the communicative distance of disparagement occurs when individuals overtly communicate disdain for persons of different cultures. The communicative distance of disparagement is often communicated through ethnophaulisms such as "kike," "jap," "spic," etc (Gudykunst, 1998; Lukens, 1978). Measuring Ethnocentrism In both the natural and social sciences, once a concept has been identified, considerable efforts are made to measure it. In its simplest terms, measurement is the assignment of numbers (i.e., quantification) to objects, events, and/or concepts (Stevens, 1951). Carmines and Zeller (1979) maintain that, in the social sciences, measurement is a process of linking intangible, abstract concepts to empirical indicants. They argue that measurement centers on the relationship between observable responses and the underlying unobservable concept. Observable responses can include scores on self-report instruments, coded behavior in an observational study, or an interviewee’s answer to a question, among others (Carmines & Zeller, 1979). Over 50 years ago, Adorno, Frenkel-Brunswik, Levinson, and Sanford (1950) published a series of studies representing the first systemic social scientific treatment and measurement of ethnocentrism. Adorno et al., (1950) focused on fascism, anti-Semitism, and the "antidemocratic" personality. In addition, Adorno et al. (1950) argued that an individual’s prejudices against minorities and ethnic groups constitute a generalized personality profile; that

Authors: Neuliep, James W..
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Assessing Reliability
5
(1998) the communicative distance of indifference is heard in such expressions as "Don’t be such
a Jew," or "My kids are acting like a bunch of wild Indians," or "Let’s do this like a Chinese
menu." The communicative distance of avoidance occurs when interactants intentionally
circumvent communication with persons from other cultures. Finally, the communicative
distance of disparagement occurs when individuals overtly communicate disdain for persons of
different cultures. The communicative distance of disparagement is often communicated through
ethnophaulisms such as "kike," "jap," "spic," etc (Gudykunst, 1998; Lukens, 1978).
Measuring Ethnocentrism
In both the natural and social sciences, once a concept has been identified, considerable
efforts are made to measure it. In its simplest terms, measurement is the assignment of numbers
(i.e., quantification) to objects, events, and/or concepts (Stevens, 1951). Carmines and Zeller
(1979) maintain that, in the social sciences, measurement is a process of linking intangible,
abstract concepts to empirical indicants. They argue that measurement centers on the relationship
between observable responses and the underlying unobservable concept. Observable responses
can include scores on self-report instruments, coded behavior in an observational study, or an
interviewee’s answer to a question, among others (Carmines & Zeller, 1979).
Over 50 years ago, Adorno, Frenkel-Brunswik, Levinson, and Sanford (1950) published a
series of studies representing the first systemic social scientific treatment and measurement of
ethnocentrism. Adorno et al., (1950) focused on fascism, anti-Semitism, and the
"antidemocratic" personality. In addition, Adorno et al. (1950) argued that an individual’s
prejudices against minorities and ethnic groups constitute a generalized personality profile; that


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