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Assessing the Reliability and Validity of the Generalized Ethnocentrism Scale
Unformatted Document Text:  Assessing Reliability 7 have too much money and freedom, they just take advantage and cause trouble," and "Certain religious sects who refuse to salute the flag should be forced to conform to such a patriotic action or else be abolished." (Adorno, et al., 1950, p. 142). As Neuliep and McCroskey (1997) point out, because the E scale was designed for white populations in the United States 50 years, it is outdated and ironically ethnocentric. Because of the problems associated with the Adorno et al., (1950) E scale, Neuliep and McCroskey (1997) constructed an instrument designed to measure ethnocentrism that can be administered to any person, regardless of his/her cultural background. The Neuliep and McCroskey (1997) Generalized Ethnocentrism (GENE) scale originally consisted of 24 Likert like items. In their article, Neuliep and McCroskey (1997) provided some initial reliability and validity estimates. Since then, McCroskey (2001) conducted a series of factor and item analyses and revised the scale. The revised GENE scale includes 22 items. The majority of the items in the revised scale are from the original scale but some have been reworded while others are new items. Of the 22 items, 15 are used in the scoring of ethnocentrism. The remaining items are treated as distracters. The revised GENE scale, and scoring procedures, appear in Figure 1. ________________________ Insert Table 1 about here _______________________ Normative Data At the time of this writing, no definitive norms on the GENE sale are available. Studies that use the revised ethnocentrism scale report means scores around 30. For example, in their

Authors: Neuliep, James W..
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Assessing Reliability
7
have too much money and freedom, they just take advantage and cause trouble," and "Certain
religious sects who refuse to salute the flag should be forced to conform to such a patriotic action
or else be abolished." (Adorno, et al., 1950, p. 142). As Neuliep and McCroskey (1997) point
out, because the E scale was designed for white populations in the United States 50 years, it is
outdated and ironically ethnocentric.
Because of the problems associated with the Adorno et al., (1950) E scale, Neuliep and
McCroskey (1997) constructed an instrument designed to measure ethnocentrism that can be
administered to any person, regardless of his/her cultural background. The Neuliep and
McCroskey (1997) Generalized Ethnocentrism (GENE) scale originally consisted of 24 Likert
like items. In their article, Neuliep and McCroskey (1997) provided some initial reliability and
validity estimates. Since then, McCroskey (2001) conducted a series of factor and item analyses
and revised the scale. The revised GENE scale includes 22 items. The majority of the items in
the revised scale are from the original scale but some have been reworded while others are new
items. Of the 22 items, 15 are used in the scoring of ethnocentrism. The remaining items are
treated as distracters. The revised GENE scale, and scoring procedures, appear in Figure 1.
________________________
Insert Table 1 about here
_______________________
Normative Data
At the time of this writing, no definitive norms on the GENE sale are available. Studies
that use the revised ethnocentrism scale report means scores around 30. For example, in their


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