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Assessing the Reliability and Validity of the Generalized Ethnocentrism Scale
Unformatted Document Text:  Assessing Reliability 9 calculate reliability coefficients using the internal consistency technique (i.e., Cronbach’s alpha). This method is preferred over other methods, such as the split-halves method. Using Cronbach's alpha for estimating reliability, Amos and McCroskey (1999) report a reliability of .90, Wrench and McCroskey (2002) report a reliability of .90, McCroskey (2002) reports a reliability of .88, Star (2001) reports a reliability of .92, and Neuliep and McCroskey (2001) report a reliability of .82. Validity Indices As Carmines and Zeller (1979) note, whereas an instrument's reliability refers to its empirical and quantitative properties, validity refers to the relationship between the instrument and the concept it purports to measure. McCroskey (1992) has pointed out that a scale may possess certain psychometric properties that demonstrate its reliability, but it may not be measuring anything conceptually. In the social sciences there are three types of validity associated with self-report type scales like the GENE. These three types include content, criterion-related, and construct validity. Content validity refers to the extent to which set of scale items are representative of the entire sphere or domain associated with the concept measured. For example, if we were to develop a test which purports to measure competence in arithmetic, we would expect the test to include questions about addition, subtraction, division, multiplication, and so on (Carmines & Zeller, 1979). If the test only included questions about addition, then the test would not possess much content validity. As mentioned earlier, the conceptual foundation of ethnocentrism is based on an individual's cultural, racial, and/or ethnic ingroup-outgroup distinction in

Authors: Neuliep, James W..
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Assessing Reliability
9
calculate reliability coefficients using the internal consistency technique (i.e., Cronbach’s alpha).
This method is preferred over other methods, such as the split-halves method. Using Cronbach's
alpha for estimating reliability, Amos and McCroskey (1999) report a reliability of .90, Wrench
and McCroskey (2002) report a reliability of .90, McCroskey (2002) reports a reliability of .88,
Star (2001) reports a reliability of .92, and Neuliep and McCroskey (2001) report a reliability of
.82.
Validity Indices
As Carmines and Zeller (1979) note, whereas an instrument's reliability refers to its
empirical and quantitative properties, validity refers to the relationship between the instrument
and the concept it purports to measure. McCroskey (1992) has pointed out that a scale may
possess certain psychometric properties that demonstrate its reliability, but it may not be
measuring anything conceptually. In the social sciences there are three types of validity
associated with self-report type scales like the GENE. These three types include content,
criterion-related, and construct validity.
Content validity refers to the extent to which set of scale items are representative of the
entire sphere or domain associated with the concept measured. For example, if we were to
develop a test which purports to measure competence in arithmetic, we would expect the test to
include questions about addition, subtraction, division, multiplication, and so on (Carmines &
Zeller, 1979). If the test only included questions about addition, then the test would not possess
much content validity. As mentioned earlier, the conceptual foundation of ethnocentrism is
based on an individual's cultural, racial, and/or ethnic ingroup-outgroup distinction in


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