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For whom is a picture worth a thousand words? How does the visualizing cognitive style affect processing of news photos?
Unformatted Document Text:  Processing of news photos 6 dimension and a dream vividness dimension (which was not a part of this study). Each of the sub-scales was measured by 10 questions (see Appendix A). Effects of Visualizing/verbalizing In summarizing the research examining the effects of visualizing and verbalizing on learning, Jonassen and Grabowski (1993) state that visualizers learn better when they see the information in a visual form, such as pictures, diagrams and maps, while verbalizers will learn better when they can read the information. In one of the earliest studies that examined effects of the visualizing and verbalizing styles, Marks (1973) found that people who were high visualizers were more accurate in recall of information contained in 15 color pictures than people who were low visualizers. After seeing a series of images and completing a distraction task, participants were asked to recall details about each image. Riding and Ashmore (1980) had children who had been pre-tested on the first author’s verbalizing-imager scale either read a short passage about, or examine a picture of, canal barges. The children were then given a recall test on what details were found in both the picture and the text. The verbalizers remembered more when they read the short passage, while the imagers remembered more when they learned the information from a picture. In a study examining how people with different cognitive styles approach a similar task, Casey et al. (1991) had college students copy a complex figure, then redraw the figure again without looking at it. Visualizers were better at reproducing the objects from memory than verbalizers. 2 The concepts of visualizer/verbalizer learning styles is similar to the concept of visual literacy, though the latter concept is closer to an ability, as many scholars define visual literacy as the learned ability to understand and interpret visuals (e.g., see Barry, 1997; Scott, 1994; Williams, 1996).

Authors: Mendelson, Andrew.
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Processing of news photos
6
dimension and a dream vividness dimension (which was not a part of this study). Each of the
sub-scales was measured by 10 questions (see Appendix A).
Effects of Visualizing/verbalizing
In summarizing the research examining the effects of visualizing and verbalizing on
learning, Jonassen and Grabowski (1993) state that visualizers learn better when they see the
information in a visual form, such as pictures, diagrams and maps, while verbalizers will learn
better when they can read the information. In one of the earliest studies that examined effects of
the visualizing and verbalizing styles, Marks (1973) found that people who were high visualizers
were more accurate in recall of information contained in 15 color pictures than people who were
low visualizers. After seeing a series of images and completing a distraction task, participants
were asked to recall details about each image.
Riding and Ashmore (1980) had children who had been pre-tested on the first author’s
verbalizing-imager scale either read a short passage about, or examine a picture of, canal barges.
The children were then given a recall test on what details were found in both the picture and the
text. The verbalizers remembered more when they read the short passage, while the imagers
remembered more when they learned the information from a picture.
In a study examining how people with different cognitive styles approach a similar task,
Casey et al. (1991) had college students copy a complex figure, then redraw the figure again
without looking at it. Visualizers were better at reproducing the objects from memory than
verbalizers.
2
The concepts of visualizer/verbalizer learning styles is similar to the concept of visual literacy, though the latter concept is closer to an ability,
as many scholars define visual literacy as the learned ability to understand and interpret visuals (e.g., see Barry, 1997; Scott, 1994; Williams,
1996).


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