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Human Smiles: Expression of Emotion or Communication Gesture?

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Abstract:

This study examined whether the smile was an indicator of felt positive emotion, or simply a communicative gesture independent of emotional state. We replicated an experiment by Fridlund (1991) where we showed participants humor-inducing video clips in three conditions varying in social contact - while alone, or when they believed a friend was watching the same video in a different room, or while they were in the same room with another participant. We videotaped participants unobtrusively, and classified the smiles into nonenjoyment smiles, consisting of zygomatic major action, and enjoyment smiles, consisting of zygomatic major action plus orbicularis oculi action. We also measured their self-report of happiness. We found that unlike Fridlund (1991), the number of smiles did not vary as a function of social contact. Moreover, we found, consistent with previous work by Ekman, Davidson, & Friesen (1990), that only enjoyment smiles consistently, across all social contact conditions, correlated with self-report of happiness, whereas nonenjoyment smiles did not. These results support the finding that one type of smile is an indicator of emotional state, and suggest a more complicated relationship between smiling and communication.

Most Common Document Word Stems:

smile (189), emot (123), express (80), social (76), communic (71), particip (66), ekman (65), facial (58), frank (46), enjoy (45), friesen (41), p (36), studi (34), condit (32), kurylo (31), nonenjoy (31), cultur (30), videotap (29), report (28), r (28), contact (27),

Author's Keywords:

smile, emotion, facial expression, interpersonal communication
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Name: International Communication Association
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http://www.icahdq.org


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URL: http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p111653_index.html
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MLA Citation:

Kurylo, Anastacia. and Frank, Mark. "Human Smiles: Expression of Emotion or Communication Gesture?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Marriott Hotel, San Diego, CA, May 27, 2003 <Not Available>. 2009-05-26 <http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p111653_index.html>

APA Citation:

Kurylo, A. D. and Frank, M. G. , 2003-05-27 "Human Smiles: Expression of Emotion or Communication Gesture?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Marriott Hotel, San Diego, CA Online <.PDF>. 2009-05-26 from http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p111653_index.html

Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This study examined whether the smile was an indicator of felt positive emotion, or simply a communicative gesture independent of emotional state. We replicated an experiment by Fridlund (1991) where we showed participants humor-inducing video clips in three conditions varying in social contact - while alone, or when they believed a friend was watching the same video in a different room, or while they were in the same room with another participant. We videotaped participants unobtrusively, and classified the smiles into nonenjoyment smiles, consisting of zygomatic major action, and enjoyment smiles, consisting of zygomatic major action plus orbicularis oculi action. We also measured their self-report of happiness. We found that unlike Fridlund (1991), the number of smiles did not vary as a function of social contact. Moreover, we found, consistent with previous work by Ekman, Davidson, & Friesen (1990), that only enjoyment smiles consistently, across all social contact conditions, correlated with self-report of happiness, whereas nonenjoyment smiles did not. These results support the finding that one type of smile is an indicator of emotional state, and suggest a more complicated relationship between smiling and communication.

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Document Type: .PDF
Page count: 32
Word count: 7358
Text sample:
Human Smiles: Expression of Emotion or Communication Gesture? Running head: Smiles and Communication. Paper submitted to the Annual International Communication Association Conference in San Diego CA 2003. Kurylo & Frank Smiles and Communication 1 Human Smiles: Expression of Emotion or Communication Gesture? Abstract This study examined whether the smile was an indicator of felt positive emotion or simply a communicative gesture independent of emotional state. We replicated an experiment by Fridlund (1991) where we showed participants humor-inducing video clips
_____________________________ Alone Moderate High Overall Type of smile (n=22) (n=22) (n=23) (N=67) __________________________________________________________________ Enjoyment Pearson r .54** .46* .47* .43** Nonenjoyment Pearson r .19 .35 .12 .24 All smiles Pearson r .37 .42 .40 .38** __________________________________________________________________ ** p < .01 (2-tailed). * p < .05 (2-tailed). Kurylo & Frank Smiles and Communication 31 Figure 1. The muscles involved in different types of smiles NOTE - DOWNLOADING PROBLEMS WITH IMAGE…


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