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Bridging Offline and Online Community: Toward A Networked Community Communication Model
Unformatted Document Text:  Bridging Offline and Online Community G \ perspectives especially since the nineteenth century (Bender, 1978, p. 3). Inasmuch, discussions and debates about community, which ask, for example, ‘what is the concept of community?,’ and ‘which factors affect community transformation?,’ have taken various perspectives according to the theoretical and methodological assumptions of the scholars and researchers. Numerous studies about community rely heavily on the society-community continuum, which comes from Ferdinand T nnies’ (1887/1963) conceptual framework of the dichotomy between Gemeinshaft and Gesellshaft (Bender, 1979, pp.16-21). His definition of Gemeinshaft (community) is characterized by “intimate, private, and exclusive living together,” whereas Gesellschaft(society) is an “artificial construction of an aggregate of human beings,” characterized by competition and impersonality (cited in Bender, 1978, p. 17). Through these concepts, he tried to explain the shift in social relations from traditional community to modern society produced by urbanization, industrialization, and capitalism. Since T nnies’ conceptual framework, many commentators and social theorists have attempted to explain the contemporary loss of community with a variety of reasons although they admitted that the large-scale community had provided new opportunities for community ties (Wellman, 1999, pp. 3-8). Emile Durkheim, who affected liberal pluralism, has attributed community breakdown to the loss of traditional solidarity in the context of industrialization. He referred to the shift from “mechanical solidarity” based upon psychological consensus to “organic solidarity” founded on interdependence resulting from the division of labor in modern urban society (cited in Bender, 1978, p. 18). In comparison to Emil Durkheim, Max Weber, who has influenced the elite theorists, accounted the reasons for community collapse on bureaucratization and urbanization. He contrasted “communal” social relationship with “associative” relationships characteristic of modern political and economic institutions based on rationalization (cited in Bender, 1978, p. 9). In a similar vein, Cooley (1909) argued that urban society was characterized by impersonal “secondary” relationships different from intimate “primary” relationships of family,

Authors: Nah, Seungahn.
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Bridging Offline and Online Community
G
\
perspectives especially since the nineteenth century (Bender, 1978, p. 3). Inasmuch,
discussions and debates about community, which ask, for example, ‘what is the concept of
community?,’ and ‘which factors affect community transformation?,’ have taken various
perspectives according to the theoretical and methodological assumptions of the scholars and
researchers.
Numerous studies about community rely heavily on the society-community continuum,
which comes from Ferdinand T nnies’ (1887/1963) conceptual framework of the dichotomy
between Gemeinshaft and Gesellshaft (Bender, 1979, pp.16-21). His definition of
Gemeinshaft (community) is characterized by “intimate, private, and exclusive living
together,” whereas Gesellschaft(society) is an “artificial construction of an aggregate of human
beings,” characterized by competition and impersonality (cited in Bender, 1978, p. 17).
Through these concepts, he tried to explain the shift in social relations from traditional
community to modern society produced by urbanization, industrialization, and capitalism.
Since T nnies’ conceptual framework, many commentators and social theorists have
attempted to explain the contemporary loss of community with a variety of reasons although
they admitted that the large-scale community had provided new opportunities for community
ties (Wellman, 1999, pp. 3-8). Emile Durkheim, who affected liberal pluralism, has attributed
community breakdown to the loss of traditional solidarity in the context of industrialization.
He referred to the shift from “mechanical solidarity” based upon psychological consensus to
“organic solidarity” founded on interdependence resulting from the division of labor in modern
urban society (cited in Bender, 1978, p. 18).
In comparison to Emil Durkheim, Max Weber, who has influenced the elite theorists,
accounted the reasons for community collapse on bureaucratization and urbanization. He
contrasted “communal” social relationship with “associative” relationships characteristic of
modern political and economic institutions based on rationalization (cited in Bender, 1978, p.
9). In a similar vein, Cooley (1909) argued that urban society was characterized by
impersonal “secondary” relationships different from intimate “primary” relationships of family,


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