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Bridging Offline and Online Community: Toward A Networked Community Communication Model
Unformatted Document Text:  Bridging Offline and Online Community G ] neighborhood, or village (cited in Bender, 1978, p. 18). In contrast to Emile Durkheim and Max Weber, Marxist theorists, Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels and their offspring, asserted that industrial capitalism created the exploitative relationship between the bourgeois and the proletariat (Wellman, 1999, pp. 4-5; Giddens, 1990, p. 10-13). By greatly stressing the capitalistic competition between the classes, they traced the nature of social transformation and change to the impact of capitalism, in which not only various material goods, but also human labor power became a commodity. In sum, these classical theories stressed changes of social relations through the various structural causes of community transition. Even though these classic sociologists explained the social or community transition from various perspectives, their theoretical accounts have been criticized for oversimplification of the causes of social or community change (Giddens, 1990, pp. 114-119). In this vein, Giddens (1990) attempted to overcome the limitations of the traditional sociological perspectives proposed by Durkheim, Weber, and Marx in developing an institutional analysis of the double-edged character of modernity. According to Giddens (1990), classical discussions between modernity and sociology have some limitations from the following three perspectives. First, the classical social thinkers regarded modernity as the single overriding dynamic of transformation, in the case of Durkheim, it was industrialization, in the case of Weber, urbanization and bureaucratization, and in the case of Marx, capitalism. In contrast to these perspectives, Giddens proposes modernity as ‘multidimensional on the level of institutions’ (Giddens, 1990, p. 12). Second, he argues that a new concept of society is necessary for a satisfactory analysis of modern institutions. In other words, he is more concerned about society not as social association but as distinct system of social relations. This viewpoint of society as systems of social relations is closely related to the problem of order-here, it is seen as the problem of order of “time-space distanciation” (p. 13-14). Third, he points out that between society (or structure) and agent, the viewpoint of self-understanding of social agents- reflexivity- in classic sociologists is too simple. Their relationship has to be understood in

Authors: Nah, Seungahn.
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Bridging Offline and Online Community
G
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neighborhood, or village (cited in Bender, 1978, p. 18).
In contrast to Emile Durkheim and Max Weber, Marxist theorists, Karl Marx, Friedrich
Engels and their offspring, asserted that industrial capitalism created the exploitative
relationship between the bourgeois and the proletariat (Wellman, 1999, pp. 4-5; Giddens, 1990,
p. 10-13). By greatly stressing the capitalistic competition between the classes, they traced
the nature of social transformation and change to the impact of capitalism, in which not only
various material goods, but also human labor power became a commodity.
In sum, these classical theories stressed changes of social relations through the various
structural causes of community transition. Even though these classic sociologists explained
the social or community transition from various perspectives, their theoretical accounts have
been criticized for oversimplification of the causes of social or community change (Giddens,
1990, pp. 114-119). In this vein, Giddens (1990) attempted to overcome the limitations of the
traditional sociological perspectives proposed by Durkheim, Weber, and Marx in developing an
institutional analysis of the double-edged character of modernity. According to Giddens
(1990), classical discussions between modernity and sociology have some limitations from the
following three perspectives.
First, the classical social thinkers regarded modernity as the single overriding dynamic
of transformation, in the case of Durkheim, it was industrialization, in the case of Weber,
urbanization and bureaucratization, and in the case of Marx, capitalism. In contrast to these
perspectives, Giddens proposes modernity as ‘multidimensional on the level of institutions’
(Giddens, 1990, p. 12). Second, he argues that a new concept of society is necessary for a
satisfactory analysis of modern institutions. In other words, he is more concerned about
society not as social association but as distinct system of social relations. This viewpoint of
society as systems of social relations is closely related to the problem of order-here, it is seen
as the problem of order of “time-space distanciation” (p. 13-14). Third, he points out that
between society (or structure) and agent, the viewpoint of self-understanding of social agents-
reflexivity- in classic sociologists is too simple. Their relationship has to be understood in


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