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Bridging Offline and Online Community: Toward A Networked Community Communication Model
Unformatted Document Text:  Bridging Offline and Online Community G ^ terms of the “double hermeneutic”. That is to say, “sociological knowledge spirals in and out of the universe of social life, reconstructing both itself and that universe as an integral part of that process” (pp. 16-17). As a result, the dynamism of modernity derives from the separation of time and space and their recombination of forms. This permits the precise time-space “zoning” of social life, the disembedding of social systems, and the reflexive ordering and reordering of social relations in the light of continual inputs of knowledge affecting the actions of individuals and groups (Giddens, 1990, pp. 16-17). Although classical scholars and Giddens proposed useful viewpoints to explain modernity, they paid little attention to the nexus between community and communication. Community in Mass Media Mediated Communication The concept of community related to communication is deeply rooted in sociological tradition even though it differs in explaining the causes of social change, in particular, community transition. The starting point in attempting to relate community to communication, especially mass media (for example, newspapers) probably stems from the Chicago School of sociology since the 1920s (Friedland, 2001, pp. 364-365). Therefore, this part reviews the community studies, in particular, the urban community in the Chicago School tradition, discusses the contribution of Robert E. Park to the studies of community and communication, and examines the vantage point of considering community as an imagined one in mass communication environment. Community Studies in the Chicago School In community studies, since Robert E. Park, the Chicago School sociologists developed a “human ecology” theory tracing back to Darwinism in theory and ethnography in methodology, for example, using participatory observation techniques in order to comprehend community structure. Particularly, in the case of research methods, they accepted the qualitative methods utilizing statistical data, for example, survey data as well as qualitative methods (Rogers, 1994, pp. 172-202). These multi-method approaches and theoretical

Authors: Nah, Seungahn.
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Bridging Offline and Online Community
G
^
terms of the “double hermeneutic”. That is to say, “sociological knowledge spirals in and out
of the universe of social life, reconstructing both itself and that universe as an integral part of
that process” (pp. 16-17).
As a result, the dynamism of modernity derives from the separation of time and space
and their recombination of forms. This permits the precise time-space “zoning” of social life,
the disembedding of social systems, and the reflexive ordering and reordering of social
relations in the light of continual inputs of knowledge affecting the actions of individuals and
groups (Giddens, 1990, pp. 16-17). Although classical scholars and Giddens proposed useful
viewpoints to explain modernity, they paid little attention to the nexus between community and
communication.
Community in Mass Media Mediated Communication
The concept of community related to communication is deeply rooted in sociological
tradition even though it differs in explaining the causes of social change, in particular,
community transition. The starting point in attempting to relate community to
communication, especially mass media (for example, newspapers) probably stems from the
Chicago School of sociology since the 1920s (Friedland, 2001, pp. 364-365). Therefore, this
part reviews the community studies, in particular, the urban community in the Chicago School
tradition, discusses the contribution of Robert E. Park to the studies of community and
communication, and examines the vantage point of considering community as an imagined one
in mass communication environment.
Community Studies in the Chicago School
In community studies, since Robert E. Park, the Chicago School sociologists developed
a “human ecology” theory tracing back to Darwinism in theory and ethnography in
methodology, for example, using participatory observation techniques in order to comprehend
community structure. Particularly, in the case of research methods, they accepted the
qualitative methods utilizing statistical data, for example, survey data as well as qualitative
methods (Rogers, 1994, pp. 172-202). These multi-method approaches and theoretical


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