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Human Smiles: Expression of Emotion or Communication Gesture?
Unformatted Document Text:  Kurylo & Frank Smiles and Communication 9 at least 4 other markers that differentiate enjoyment smiles from nonenjoyment smiles (reviewed by Frank & Ekman, 1993; and Frank, 2003). For example, enjoyment smiles tend to be more symmetrical (Ekman & Friesen, 1982; Ekman, Friesen, & Ancoli, 1980; Ekman, Hager, & Friesen, 1981), have a more consistent duration of zygomatic major action lasting between .5 and 4.0 seconds (whereas nonenjoyment smiles tend to have a longer or shorter duration; Ekman & Friesen, 1982; Frank, Ekman & Friesen, 1993; Fox & Davidson, 1988; Hess, Kappas, McHugo, Kleck, & Lanzetta, 1989; Hess & Kleck, 1990), have a smoother onset (Bugental, 1986; Ekman & Friesen, 1982; Frank, et al, 1993; Hess & Kleck, 1990; Weiss, Blum, & Gleberman, 1987), and have muscles that reach apex simultaneously (Ekman & Friesen, 1982; Frank et al, 1993). Yet to date the marker originally identified by Duchenne (called the Duchenne marker in his honor by Ekman, 1989), is the most robust and reliable of all the markers that potentially can be used to make the distinction between enjoyment and nonenjoyment smiles (Frank & Ekman, 1993). Synthesis and hypotheses. It seems reasonable to suggest that the presence of the Duchenne marker would allow us to test directly the relativist, universalist, and neurocultural positions on the relationships between facial expressions and emotions. Thus we propose the following hypotheses:

Authors: Kurylo, Anastacia. and Frank, Mark.
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Kurylo & Frank
Smiles and Communication
9
at least 4 other markers that differentiate enjoyment smiles from nonenjoyment smiles
(reviewed by Frank & Ekman, 1993; and Frank, 2003). For example, enjoyment smiles
tend to be more symmetrical (Ekman & Friesen, 1982; Ekman, Friesen, & Ancoli, 1980;
Ekman, Hager, & Friesen, 1981), have a more consistent duration of zygomatic major
action lasting between .5 and 4.0 seconds (whereas nonenjoyment smiles tend to have a
longer or shorter duration; Ekman & Friesen, 1982; Frank, Ekman & Friesen, 1993; Fox
& Davidson, 1988; Hess, Kappas, McHugo, Kleck, & Lanzetta, 1989; Hess & Kleck,
1990), have a smoother onset (Bugental, 1986; Ekman & Friesen, 1982; Frank, et al,
1993; Hess & Kleck, 1990; Weiss, Blum, & Gleberman, 1987), and have muscles that
reach apex simultaneously (Ekman & Friesen, 1982; Frank et al, 1993). Yet to date the
marker originally identified by Duchenne (called the Duchenne marker in his honor by
Ekman, 1989), is the most robust and reliable of all the markers that potentially can be
used to make the distinction between enjoyment and nonenjoyment smiles (Frank &
Ekman, 1993).
Synthesis and hypotheses.
It seems reasonable to suggest that the presence of the Duchenne marker would
allow us to test directly the relativist, universalist, and neurocultural positions on the
relationships between facial expressions and emotions. Thus we propose the following
hypotheses:


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