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Human Smiles: Expression of Emotion or Communication Gesture?
Unformatted Document Text:  Kurylo & Frank Smiles and Communication 10 Hypothesis 1: If all types of smiles vary as a function of sociality, but not as a function of self-report of positive emotion, then this would be consistent with the relativist position. Hypothesis 2a: If only nonenjoyment smiles, but not enjoyment smiles, vary as a function of sociality and Hypothesis 2b: only enjoyment smiles correlate with self-report positive emotion, then this would be consistent with the neurocultural position. Hypothesis 3: If all smiles vary as a function of self-report of positive emotion, but do not vary as a function of sociality, then this would be consistent with the universalist position. We decided to test these competing explanations by replicating Fridlund’s experiment (1991) where people are placed into different levels of sociality as they watch videos designed to elicit enjoyment, and then their facial actions were measured. However, unlike Fridlund, we measured both enjoyment and nonenjoyment smiles to assess the effect of different levels of sociality, and felt internal emotion, on the expression of human smiles - and we measured these smiles unobtrusively. Method The design of this present study replicates Fridlund’s (1991) study wherein participants watched humorous videotape intended to elicit positive emotion across conditions with varying degrees of sociality. Though based closely on Fridlund’s design, the replication differs on three aspects. First, we used 3 conditions rather than 4. We had participants view the video alone, or when they believed their friend was viewing the same video in a different room, or when they viewed the video with their friend in the same room. We eliminated the condition where a participant and friend are in different

Authors: Kurylo, Anastacia. and Frank, Mark.
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Kurylo & Frank
Smiles and Communication
10
Hypothesis 1: If all types of smiles vary as a function of sociality, but not as a function of
self-report of positive emotion, then this would be consistent with the relativist position.
Hypothesis 2a: If only nonenjoyment smiles, but not enjoyment smiles, vary as a function
of sociality and
Hypothesis 2b: only enjoyment smiles correlate with self-report positive emotion, then
this would be consistent with the neurocultural position.
Hypothesis 3: If all smiles vary as a function of self-report of positive emotion, but do not
vary as a function of sociality, then this would be consistent with the universalist
position.
We decided to test these competing explanations by replicating Fridlund’s
experiment (1991) where people are placed into different levels of sociality as they watch
videos designed to elicit enjoyment, and then their facial actions were measured.
However, unlike Fridlund, we measured both enjoyment and nonenjoyment smiles to
assess the effect of different levels of sociality, and felt internal emotion, on the
expression of human smiles - and we measured these smiles unobtrusively.
Method
The design of this present study replicates Fridlund’s (1991) study wherein
participants watched humorous videotape intended to elicit positive emotion across
conditions with varying degrees of sociality. Though based closely on Fridlund’s design,
the replication differs on three aspects. First, we used 3 conditions rather than 4. We had
participants view the video alone, or when they believed their friend was viewing the
same video in a different room, or when they viewed the video with their friend in the
same room. We eliminated the condition where a participant and friend are in different


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