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Human Smiles: Expression of Emotion or Communication Gesture?
Unformatted Document Text:  Kurylo & Frank Smiles and Communication 11 rooms but not doing the same task, which we saw as slightly redundant with Fridlund’s condition requiring participants to perform the same task in separate rooms. Second, we scored and distinguished between enjoyment smiles and nonenjoyment smiles, for the reasons made apparent above. Third, we measured facial expressions unobtrusively rather than employing the facial electromyography (EMG) techniques used by Fridlund. We did this because EMG requires attaching electrodes onto the face of a participant, which can necessarily and artificially draw a participant’s attention toward his or her face and/or its expression. Instead we measured participants’ smiles by videotaping them through a one-way mirror, and then classifying the types of smiles seen on the videotape using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS; Ekman & Friesen, 1978). FACS is a system for scoring all visible facial muscle movements, not just those presumed to be related to emotion. It has shown high reliability in a number of studies for almost all facial muscle movements (e.g., Sayette et al, 2001), and has been used to verify the presence of emotion in over 37 published studies (Ekman & Rosenberg, 1997). Design The current study employed a 3 x 2 (degree of social contact x smile type) combined between/ within-subject design. The between-subjects independent variable was the degree of social contact; which was defined as alone (participants viewed the videotape by themselves), moderate (they believed a friend was watching the same videotape in “the room down the hall”), or high (they had a friend seated beside them). The within-subject dependent variable was the frequency of enjoyment and nonenjoyment smiles

Authors: Kurylo, Anastacia. and Frank, Mark.
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background image
Kurylo & Frank
Smiles and Communication
11
rooms but not doing the same task, which we saw as slightly redundant with Fridlund’s
condition requiring participants to perform the same task in separate rooms. Second, we
scored and distinguished between enjoyment smiles and nonenjoyment smiles, for the
reasons made apparent above. Third, we measured facial expressions unobtrusively
rather than employing the facial electromyography (EMG) techniques used by Fridlund.
We did this because EMG requires attaching electrodes onto the face of a participant,
which can necessarily and artificially draw a participant’s attention toward his or her face
and/or its expression. Instead we measured participants’ smiles by videotaping them
through a one-way mirror, and then classifying the types of smiles seen on the videotape
using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS; Ekman & Friesen, 1978). FACS is a
system for scoring all visible facial muscle movements, not just those presumed to be
related to emotion. It has shown high reliability in a number of studies for almost all
facial muscle movements (e.g., Sayette et al, 2001), and has been used to verify the
presence of emotion in over 37 published studies (Ekman & Rosenberg, 1997).
Design
The current study employed a 3 x 2 (degree of social contact x smile type)
combined between/ within-subject design. The between-subjects independent variable
was the degree of social contact; which was defined as alone (participants viewed the
videotape by themselves), moderate (they believed a friend was watching the same
videotape in “the room down the hall”), or high (they had a friend seated beside them).
The within-subject dependent variable was the frequency of enjoyment and
nonenjoyment smiles


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