All Academic, Inc. Research Logo

Info/CitationFAQResearchAll Academic Inc.
Document

Human Smiles: Expression of Emotion or Communication Gesture?
Unformatted Document Text:  Kurylo & Frank Smiles and Communication 14 one-way observational device. To avoid drawing participants’ attention to their own or their friend’s facial behavior, participants’ chairs were positioned so that they could not see their own or their friend’s reflection in the mirror. After consenting to participate in the study, participants were asked to complete a modified Differential Emotions Scale (DES1; Izard, 1972). This scale was used in Fridlund’s (1991) experiment and requires participants to indicate with an X on scales of 0-100 the extent to which they feel each of these twelve states: hunger, thirst, anger, fatigue, fear, surprise, happiness, disgust, contempt, interest, curiosity, and sadness. Then, four personality inventories were administered. Following this, participants were informed that the videotape would be played without sound and the experimenter proceeded to play the videotape stimulus. The experimenter then left the testing room and closed the door behind her. While the tape was being played, a close-up recording was made of the participant’s face. Both of the participants in the high social contact condition were videotaped simultaneously with two separate video cameras. When the videotape was over, the video cameras were stopped and the experimenter re-entered the testing room. Participants’ self-reports of emotion were obtained again immediately after viewing the videotape (DES2). Results from DES2, but not the other instruments which were unrelated to the hypotheses of this study, are reported in this paper. At the conclusion of the experiment participants were informed that they had been video recorded while viewing the stimulus videotape and were asked if they would consent to the use of the video recording for the study. It was explained to participants that it was imperative to the hypotheses of the study that they were not made aware of the videotaping because it might have affected their behavior. We informed participants

Authors: Kurylo, Anastacia. and Frank, Mark.
first   previous   Page 15 of 32   next   last



background image
Kurylo & Frank
Smiles and Communication
14
one-way observational device. To avoid drawing participants’ attention to their own or
their friend’s facial behavior, participants’ chairs were positioned so that they could not
see their own or their friend’s reflection in the mirror.
After consenting to participate in the study, participants were asked to complete a
modified Differential Emotions Scale (DES1; Izard, 1972). This scale was used in
Fridlund’s (1991) experiment and requires participants to indicate with an X on scales of
0-100 the extent to which they feel each of these twelve states: hunger, thirst, anger,
fatigue, fear, surprise, happiness, disgust, contempt, interest, curiosity, and sadness. Then,
four personality inventories were administered. Following this, participants were
informed that the videotape would be played without sound and the experimenter
proceeded to play the videotape stimulus. The experimenter then left the testing room and
closed the door behind her. While the tape was being played, a close-up recording was
made of the participant’s face. Both of the participants in the high social contact
condition were videotaped simultaneously with two separate video cameras. When the
videotape was over, the video cameras were stopped and the experimenter re-entered the
testing room. Participants’ self-reports of emotion were obtained again immediately after
viewing the videotape (DES2). Results from DES2, but not the other instruments which
were unrelated to the hypotheses of this study, are reported in this paper.
At the conclusion of the experiment participants were informed that they had been
video recorded while viewing the stimulus videotape and were asked if they would
consent to the use of the video recording for the study. It was explained to participants
that it was imperative to the hypotheses of the study that they were not made aware of the
videotaping because it might have affected their behavior. We informed participants


Convention
All Academic Convention makes running your annual conference simple and cost effective. It is your online solution for abstract management, peer review, and scheduling for your annual meeting or convention.
Submission - Custom fields, multiple submission types, tracks, audio visual, multiple upload formats, automatic conversion to pdf.
Review - Peer Review, Bulk reviewer assignment, bulk emails, ranking, z-score statistics, and multiple worksheets!
Reports - Many standard and custom reports generated while you wait. Print programs with participant indexes, event grids, and more!
Scheduling - Flexible and convenient grid scheduling within rooms and buildings. Conflict checking and advanced filtering.
Communication - Bulk email tools to help your administrators send reminders and responses. Use form letters, a message center, and much more!
Management - Search tools, duplicate people management, editing tools, submission transfers, many tools to manage a variety of conference management headaches!
Click here for more information.

first   previous   Page 15 of 32   next   last

©2012 All Academic, Inc.